First aid in emergencies

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First aid in emergenciesIt is usually believed that "frostbite" is possible only when the mercury of a street thermometer has fallen far below zero. But this is not true. High humidity and prolonged cooling can lead to frostbite of the skin at temperatures close to zero, especially if there is a strong wind, and the clothes are damp, and the body is weakened. This must be taken into account when organizing long walks with children.


First aid in emergenciesWhat needs to be done to provide first aid?

The victim is warmed with heating pads, given a hot drink, and a warm bath is made for the frostbitten limb (water temperature is up to 40 ° C), then it is gently rubbed and massaged, seeking to restore sensitivity in it.

Contrary to popular belief, experts categorically do not recommend rubbing a frostbitten place with snow, in general in the cold.

After 2-3 days, the signs of 1st degree frostbite disappear (at first it is pale skin, swelling, pain, then, in warmth -: blue discoloration, swelling and peeling). The bubbles that appear indicate the 2nd degree of frostbite, and if they are filled with bloody fluid, the 3rd. The fourth degree is the necrosis of soft, sometimes bone tissue.

Emergency medical attention is needed in cases where large areas of the skin are damaged and with frostbite of the 3rd and 4th degrees.

Bruise, fracture, dislocation

First aid in emergenciesBruises and bumps are quite common companions of any childhood. And a cold patch at the site of a bruise is probably the very first aid that we learn to provide to ourselves and to others. Instead of a patch, you can take a metal spoon or substitute the bruised place under a stream of cold water, but simply - wet a cloth with it and apply it to the bruise. A bruise is evidence of a hemorrhage. If he and the lump (edema) do not disappear for a long time, it is necessary to see a doctor. After all, a bruise is a bruise. Therefore, if the damaged area hurts very much, you need to go for medical help: the bone may be damaged. Making attempts to cope with the injury on your own, do not forget: you can keep the cold on the damaged area for 1-2 hours, later a warm compress helps to resolve the hemorrhage. It is impossible to rub the bruise vigorously: it threatens with thrombophlebitis, it is better to apply a pressure bandage.

A severe injury to the head can cause concussion. Having provided the victim with peace and a cold compress, immediately call a doctor: the patient cannot move without his knowledge. The same goes for severe bruises in the chest and abdomen.

As we said, if the severe pain at the site of the injury persists, the bone may be damaged. Other signs also speak about the fracture: it is impossible to "use" a sick arm (leg), its mobility and even its shape are changed. Injured ribs with a fracture cause sharp pain when breathing deeply and coughing. Trying to repair a fracture yourself is a dangerous exercise: you can injure blood vessels and break through the skin. Therefore, first aid consists of applying a splint and transporting the victim to the hospital.

How to splint? Pick up a solid object (board, stick, umbrella - whichever is faster) so that in length it goes beyond the two joints of the limb between which the fracture occurred. Apply an impromptu splint (preferably over clothing, fabric) and tie in several places with a bandage, rope, belt. Tie so that the limb is motionless, but blood circulation is not impaired.

If you have not found a handy item for the splint, use a healthy leg instead - tie the sick leg to it (if your arm is injured, you can hang it on a scarf, a suitable piece of cloth).

In case of an open fracture, the skin around the wound is lubricated with iodine and a sterile bandage is applied.

With a closed bone fracture, a layman may confuse damage to the ligaments of the joint, sprain. It is also accompanied by sharp pain, later - swelling. Cold in the first hours, rest, if necessary, move - a tight bandage that does not disturb blood circulation, on the third day - a warm bath for the injured limb - these procedures will help the victim, but specialist advice is needed in order to exclude a fracture or fracture of the bone.

Dislocation - it makes itself felt with sharp pain, limitation or inability to move in the damaged joint. Here, too, cold is needed, a fixing bandage or a splint on the dislocated joint. It should be corrected as soon as possible and only with the help of a specialist. Prolonged self-medication may result in surgery.


First aid in emergenciesThe basic principle of the primary treatment of wounds is probably known to everyone: disinfection with antiseptic agents. But if we undoubtedly smear a small cut on a finger with iodine, then this should not be done with more serious injuries.

Here is the necessary sequence of actions to help the victim at home. After thoroughly washing your hands or rubbing them with alcohol, cover the wound with a sterile napkin. We moisten a cotton swab with alcohol or hydrogen peroxide and thoroughly wash the skin around the wound (movements in the direction from it), then we also lubricate it with iodine. We remove the napkin and put folded sterile gauze in several layers over the entire wound, then a layer of cotton wool and bandage it. Now the patient can be transported to a medical facility. If an arm or leg is seriously injured, we first apply a splint to provide the injured limb with peace.

But suppose a misfortune happened during a hike, a walk. It is impossible to wash the wound, foreign bodies trapped in it are removed only from the surface, without touching with our hands. Then cover the wound with a clean piece of cloth, preferably a sterile bandage. By the way, when going on a hike, a long trip, do not forget to collect a first-aid kit, which should contain both sterile dressings and antiseptics. Then the initial treatment of the wound will not pose problems that can adversely affect the health of the victim. After providing first aid, immediately go with him to the nearest hospital.

If the injury is accompanied by bleeding, the first step is to stop it. If damaged arteries blood gushes in a fountain or an intermittent stream. In these cases, a tourniquet is applied above the wound. The tourniquet itself is an elastic rubber tube; it can be replaced by a rope, a cloth torn into strips, and finally a handkerchief. Having made 2-3 turns around the wounded limb and tying the ends of the tourniquet in a knot, slip a stick or pencil under it and use them to tighten the tourniquet until the bleeding stops. It is impossible to hold the tourniquet for more than 1.5-2 hours, as tissue necrosis can occur. If during this time you do not have time to get to the hospital, release the tourniquet for 10 minutes every hour. At this point, the blood stops by pressing the artery with the fingers to the bone in the right places.

Vein damage is indicated by bleeding with a jet of dark red color. If the pressure antiseptic dressing does not stop him, we also apply a tourniquet, but below the wound.

In all cases of severe bleeding, qualified help should be provided as soon as possible, as it is life-threatening.

Nasal bleeding stops as follows: the patient is seated with his head tilted forward, and a tight ball of cotton wool moistened with hydrogen peroxide is placed in the nostril.


First aid in emergenciesBee and wasp stings are painful, but rarely cause unpleasant consequences, with individual hypersensitivity to this poison. Then the swelling at the site of the bite is large, convulsions, hives, vomiting may occur. In these cases, it is necessary to see a doctor. First aid for a bite is to remove the sting from the wound and put a cold lotion on it.

The bites of poisonous snakes are another matter.Here a lot depends on first aid, since poisons are absorbed very quickly. After laying the victim down, we press on the wound, as if opening it, and for at least 15 minutes we suck out the poison, periodically spitting it out. After that, we wipe the bite site with a disinfectant (iodine, alcohol), apply a bandage. Before arriving at the hospital, the victim needs maximum rest, so it is better to transport him on a stretcher, and immobilize the affected part of the body by applying a splint.


First aid in emergenciesA condition similar to that of poisoning accompanies many other diseases. This must be remembered when providing first aid to a patient with the following symptoms: abdominal pain, vomiting, weakness, diarrhea. We apply the whole complex of measures necessary in case of poisoning only if there is no doubt about the cause of suffering. Because gastric lavage, heating pads on the stomach, laxatives are unacceptable for appendicitis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, myocardial infarction, which may manifest similar symptoms.

Food poisoning usually appears several hours after eating poor quality foods. The first aid task is to remove toxic substances from the body as soon as possible. To this end, we wash the stomach, give the patient an abundant drink, preferably hot tea. If mushroom poisoning has occurred, then, in addition to general signs, profuse salivation and visual disturbances appear. Convulsions and loss of consciousness are observed in especially severe cases.

When faced with a case of acid or alkali poisoning, remember: in these circumstances, it is impossible to wash the victim's stomach on their own, since during vomiting, a poisonous substance can enter the respiratory tract. When trying to neutralize the poison (acid - alkali and vice versa), pain and bleeding may increase, therefore, except for 2-3 glasses of water, the patient should not take anything inside before the ambulance arrives.

Help with electrical injury primarily consists in stopping the effect of the damaging factor, in this case - current. In this case, you must observe your own safety measures. If you drag the victim away, arms and legs should be insulated with rubber (gloves, boots, dry wool is good). Lacking things necessary for isolation, disconnect the current source from the victim with the help of some dry wooden object, a stick. Naturally, when it is possible to quickly turn off the current, this must be done.

Depending on the degree of damage, the following necessary actions are determined. Cessation of breathing and palpitations requires immediate resuscitation - chest compressions and mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration. If there is breathing and palpitations, it is necessary to put the victim down, let him breathe with ammonia. alcohol, with preserved consciousness - warm drink. Skin burns should be treated with hydrogen peroxide and a sterile dressing should be applied.

Electric shock

First aid in emergenciesIn other cases, it may seem that the electrical injury is not strong: the person is fully conscious, moving. However, if all the unpleasant sensations (drowsiness, shortness of breath, palpitations, muscle twitching, sweating, headache) have not gone away within 30-40 minutes, the victim needs medical help.

Our everyday life is so filled with various electrical appliances that we sometimes lose our vigilance, we carelessly handle them. And it should be remembered: even an alternating current with a voltage of 36 V can cause death. It may seem incredible to some, but fact is fact.


First aid in emergenciesIt is even more difficult to imagine drowning in a bathtub. Unfortunately, this also happens. But of course, rivers, lakes and seas are a much greater danger in this sense. Such a pleasant and useful form of recreation - swimming - attracts a huge number of people. That is why it is imperative that we all have the skills to rescue drowning people.

Here's what the experts recommend:

A drowning person often has to be rescued by swimming (in the absence of life-saving equipment, far from rescue stations). At the same time, the rescuer must clearly understand and quickly perform the entire sequence of actions necessary in a given situation. First you need to run along the shore to the place closest to the sinking. Having undressed and entering the water, you should swim quickly, but retaining strength for the upcoming rescue actions. If the drowning person has sunk to the bottom, the rescuer must dive, swim along the bottom (in the river - taking into account the direction and speed of its current). Having found a drowned person, you need to take him by the hand, under the armpits or by the hair and, pushing off from the bottom, float to the surface, working only with your legs or feet and with one hand. If the drowning person is on the surface, try to calm him down. In case of failure, it is better to swim up to him from behind in order to avoid his grips, from which it is difficult to get rid of (one of the methods is immersion in water with the drowning man, who, trying to stay on the surface, will release the rescuer).

What measures to take when the victim is ashore? We focus on the severity of his condition. In the most severe cases, when cardiac activity and respiration are absent, it is necessary to apply artificial respiration "mouth to mouth" and chest compressions. If the cardiac activity has not stopped, but there is no breathing, we do an artificial one. But first of all, it is necessary to do the following: lay the victim so that the head is thrown back and lowered, push the lower jaw and free the oral cavity from silt, mud, vomit, having previously wrapped the finger with a bandage or handkerchief. After that, we immediately proceed to pre-medical resuscitation.

Before talking about her techniques, we recall: if, after providing first aid, even an easily injured person is not taken to a hospital, complications may arise that will lead a person to death.

First-aid resuscitation

First aid in emergenciesWhen breathing and blood circulation stop, clinical death occurs. If these vital functions of the body are not restored within 4-6 minutes, biological death occurs. Even if it is possible to revive a person at this moment, it is almost impossible to fully restore the mental and physical activity of the body. With the help of pre-medical resuscitation, the moment of biological death is postponed, even if it is not possible to achieve independent breathing and blood circulation of the victim. Therefore, the rescuers, without losing hope, must continue to revive until the arrival of the ambulance.

How to determine that clinical death has occurred? The lifeless posture of the victim testifies to it; the pupils are dilated, the pulse is not detected even on the carotid arteries; if you put your ear to your chest, you can't hear the heartbeat.

First of all, you need to untie, unfasten everything in your clothes that interferes with the free passage of air into the lungs, and immediately begin artificial respiration and chest compressions.

There are several methods of artificial respiration, now the most appropriate method is "mouth to mouth" or "mouth to nose": the air exhaled by the rescuer contains 16% oxygen, while in the atmospheric air it is 21%. With other methods of artificial respiration, an insufficient amount of air enters the victim's lungs for their full ventilation.

A roller of clothing (a pillow, a rolled blanket) should be placed under the shoulders of the resuscitated person, his head should be thrown back as far as possible, raising the chin up and pushing the lower jaw forward. From the side, we pinch the nose with one hand, with the other slightly press on the chin. If possible, cover the victim's open mouth with gauze, take a deep breath, press our lips against his mouth and exhale (blow in) the air. After a passive "exhalation" of the resuscitated, we do the next blowing and so on 12-15 times a minute, rhythmically.(The "inhale" of the revived one is clearly visible by the expansion of his chest.) Thus, the blood is saturated with oxygen, and the task of an indirect heart massage is to ensure the movement of blood through the body.

It is carried out as follows. We put one hand on the other, palms down, sharply press on the victim's sternum. (Pose of the resuscitator: on the knees above the person being revived, arms straightened - it is more convenient to use the force of one's own gravity.) Pressing (pressing) should be repeated 50-60 times per minute. The combination with artificial respiration is as follows: for 5 strokes of the chest, carry out one "breath" or two deep "breaths" in a row after 10-12 strokes. It is impossible to simultaneously make an inhalation ("inhalation") and press on the sternum, as there is a danger of lung rupture. When massaging the heart, one must also remember about the likelihood of rib fracture, therefore, with all the vigor of the movements, they should not be too sharp.

Changes in the color of the victim's face, a decrease in pupils, the appearance of a pulse on the carotid artery - all this indicates the desired effect of resuscitation. It is necessary to continue revitalization until spontaneous breathing and heart contractions appear, in the absence of the desired effect, as we have already said, until the arrival of resuscitators.

Summing up all that has been said, let us single out three main tasks for a person who seeks to help someone in trouble. The first task: to stop the impact of the damaging factor (pull it out of the water, disconnect it from the current source, etc.). Second: to provide first aid. Third: call an ambulance or deliver the victim to a hospital.

Little tricks

First aid in emergenciesTo properly apply a bandage, you need to know the rules of bandaging. The affected part of the body should be accessible from all sides when applying the bandage, the correct position of the limbs is indicated in the figure. The bandage should not interfere with blood circulation and cause pain, move out. You need to start bandaging from a thinner part of the body. The first two turns coincide, the further ones close each previous one by half the width of the bandage. If the bandage does not completely cover the previous turn, making too great a bias, it must be turned over.

If the ribs are broken, a bandage, towel or sheet should be applied to the chest, which would moderately tighten the chest. Before applying it, ask the victim to exhale.

If in an accident there is a suspicion that a person has a broken spine, it is possible to transport him to a hospital only by placing him on a wide board or a sheet of plywood.

In addition to bandages, there are also contour and mesh dressings. Contour are especially convenient for burns, they can be applied quickly and painlessly. Mesh is especially convenient for bandaging fingers, feet, joints, head.

Infusions and decoctions of valerian root, motherwort, bearberry leaves and other medicinal plants cannot be stored for a long time. Zelenin drops, valerian, mint drops containing alcohol are subject to long-term storage. But the eye drops quickly lose activity and decompose.

After using a heating pad, do not pour water out of it to a drop: rubber deprived of moisture deteriorates faster.

Sashina E.Yu

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