Apricot kernels
Grape seed
From pine nuts
Wheat germ oil
Cocoa oil
Pine nut
Corn (maize)
Sesame (sesame)
Sea buckthorn
Olive (Provencal)
Palm (palm kernel)
Pecan nuts
Rice bran
From pumpkin seeds
From hazelnuts

The following is a brief description of the vegetable oils used in cooking and eaten (in alphabetical order).


Apricot and peach oils are produced from the seeds of the respective fruits by pressing and filtering. Unrefined apricot and peach oils are used only in the cosmetics industry. In food - only refined and deodorized: it has a mild taste and almost no smell. It makes an excellent salad dressing, as well as a "light" mayonnaise.


Avocado oil is a golden yellow oil with a light aniseed note, made from the pulp of an avocado. The fruits are cleaned of skin and seeds (they will contain toxic substances), the pulp of the fruit is squeezed out at a temperature of about 50 ° C, the average fruit contains from 13 to 22% oil. If the spin temperature does not exceed 55 ° C, then this spin is called cold. Refined avocado oil has the highest smoke point of any vegetable oil (it does not burn or smoke until the temperature reaches 260 ° C), which is why it is often used for deep-frying meats or vegetables. This oil contains a lot of vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acids, which help lower blood cholesterol levels and make the oil very useful. It is perfect for dressing salads and other dishes - however, after seasoning salad or vegetables with avocado oil, you need to let them stand for a little so that the aroma of the oil opens up properly. Avocado oil goes well with potatoes. Avocado oil is best fresh - it does not improve over time, does not like light and heat, and therefore should be stored in a dark and cool place.


Amaranth oil has no pronounced taste and smell. Recommended for adding to salads, hot and cold appetizers. The oil obtained from amaranth seeds contains a lot of polyunsaturated fatty acids (up to 50%), amino acids, vitamins B and E, carbohydrates (63%), trace elements: calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus, boron, titanium, zinc. It gained great popularity due to the presence of squalene in it. Squalene is a substance that captures oxygen and saturates the tissues and cells of the body with it. Supplemental oxygen promotes more intensive nutrient processing. It is able to increase the strength of the immune system several times, ensuring the body's resistance to various diseases.


Peanut butter is obtained from the fruit of the peanut. Unrefined - red-brown, refined - straw yellow.Peanut butter starts to "break down" at a higher temperature than other oils, so even unrefined peanut butter can be used for frying. In addition, peanut butter is often added to light salads, but it works especially well in soups and doughs.


Argan oil is obtained by cold pressing from the fruits of argan, or "iron tree". This oil is golden yellow in color, slightly reminiscent of pumpkin in taste, but more intense, with a piquant aftertaste. The iron tree grows only in Morocco, and ten years ago almost nothing was known about this tasty and healthy oil either in Europe or in America. However, the Berbers - the indigenous population of Morocco - call the argan the tree of life. And for good reason. This oil is a source of vitamin E (74 percent!) And oligo-linoleic acids and saponins, which reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, increase immunity, and slow down the aging process. Argan oil is widely used not only in cooking, but also in medicine and cosmetology.

Beech oil

Triangular single-seed nuts are very nutritious: they contain up to 50 percent oil, and, in addition, proteins, sugars, malic and citric acid, vitamin E. Inhabitants of those places where there are many beech trees, they make flour from peeled and necessarily toasted nuts. Adding a small amount of wheat flour to it, they bake excellent pancakes, pancakes, and crumbly cookies. In some places (in the Caucasus, in the Carpathians), beech flour is used for baking ordinary bread. From such an additive, its taste is noticeably improved.
Why are beech nuts necessarily roasted? The fact is that in the film of their nucleus there is a poisonous alkaloid phagin, which causes a severe headache. And when roasting, the alkaloid is destroyed, and the nuts become harmless. High-quality edible oil of light yellow color is obtained from them, not inferior to Provencal. It is used in the food and confectionery industries. The mass remaining after pressing is used to make a coffee substitute.


Grape oil can withstand high temperatures without altering flavor or odor, making it ideal for frying. You can cook fragrant fondue with it. The oil has a clean light taste with a spicy undertone. Grape oil is rich in polyunsaturated fats, especially linoleic acid - up to 76%, more than any other oil. One tablespoon of grape oil a day is enough to cover your daily requirement for vitamin E.
As an edible vegetable oil
- for dressing salads and cold dishes, will give your dish a unique "zest";
- like no other is suitable for marinating meat and fish;
- ideal for frying and baking;
- gives an unforgettable taste of roasted meat and a golden-yellow color to potatoes;
- used for wellness cocktails;
- finds particular application as a dietary oil.
On its basis, a delicious mayonnaise is obtained, it is added to marinades when canning, in baked goods.


Pine nut oil is produced from the kernels of pine nuts, which are harvested in the Urals and Siberia. In terms of the amount of vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fats and its medicinal properties, cedar nut oil can replace any other, besides, it contains the maximum possible amount of vitamin F for a plant product. Cedar nut oil helps to cure tracheitis, laryngitis and acute respiratory infections, neurodermatitis and ulcers of various origins, removes salts of heavy metals from the body, helps to cope with chronic fatigue syndrome, increases efficiency. In cooking, pine nut oil is used mainly for making desserts, as well as for marinating meat and fish, and for grilling.


This oil is made from walnut kernels. Light brown in color, with a pronounced nutty taste and smell.It contains many antioxidants that enhance immunity, inhibit the effects of radiation, slow down the aging process, normalize blood sugar and thyroid function. In cooking, walnut oil is used as a dressing for green salads, and is also added to dough for baked goods, cakes and pastries.


Mustard oil is a vegetable fatty oil made from refined mustard seeds (most often Sarepta) containing about 30% fat. It is yellow, with a slight greenish tint, has a specific, but pleasant taste and smell. Mustard oil is used in the baking industry, in the production of bakery products: gingerbread, bagels, and so on. Mustard oil is very "finicky" and in combination with some products forms an unpleasant aftertaste and unaesthetic lemon-yellow color.
Mustard oil has a specific aroma and piquant taste (absolutely not bitter, as many think) and is perfect for dressing salads, emphasizing the natural taste of vegetables. In addition, salads with this dressing stay fresh longer.
Pancakes are excellent fried in mustard oil, and if you add it to bread or pie dough, they will be more magnificent and will not become stale for a long time. The same is with canned food - when you add mustard oil, they do not deteriorate longer. All these features are widely used in the canning industry (herring in mustard oil). And meat and fish cooked on it acquire a special pleasant taste.
Mustard oil is considered a finished medicine by many nutritionists. Due to its antiseptic and bactericidal properties, this vegetable oil is perfect for the treatment of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and colds.


Wheat germ oil contains over 75% triglycerides of various fatty acids, up to 6% free fatty acids and up to 4% glycolipids and phospholipids. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (vitamin P) is over 70%, while the ratio of linoleic and linolenic acids is 3: 1, which is the most optimal for lipid metabolism in the body. The oil also contains myristic, oleic, erucic and about 10 nucleic acids.
The oil contains a large amount of vitamins, both water-soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B6, D, PP, pantothenic and folic acids) and fat-soluble (vitamins E and A). Wheat germ oil contains the maximum amount of vitamin E from all known natural sources - over 400 mg. in 100 g of oil, while it is dominated by the most active form of vitamin E - alpha - tocopherol (about 70%).
When using wheat germ oil for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, it is taken orally directly, or by adding it to various salads, cereals, bakery and confectionery products.


Cocoa butter is a light yellow (whitish) fatty substance, has a hard and brittle consistency at room temperature, a characteristic odor, quickly and completely melts in the mouth without a residual waxy aftertaste. Distinguish between natural cocoa butter and deodorized (further processed).
Application area
Cocoa butter is used as a fat base for the production of various confectionery products, as well as in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries.
Cocoa butter is a fatty substance of light yellow (whitish) color, has a hard and brittle consistency at room temperature, a characteristic odor, quickly and completely melts in the mouth without residual waxy aftertaste. Distinguish between natural cocoa butter and deodorized (further processed).
Cocoa butter is used as a fat base for the production of various confectionery products, as well as in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries.
For the production of chocolate products, a large amount of cocoa butter is required, which is obtained by pressing cocoa liquor on hydraulic presses. The solid residue (cocoa cake) formed after pressing is processed into a commercial or industrial cocoa powder. The oil yield is 44 ... 47% of the mass of cocoa liquor. At the same time, 10.5 ... 17% fat remains in the cocoa cake. The output of cocoa butter, that is, its amount squeezed out by pressing, under the same conditions of the process can fluctuate and depends mainly on the fat content in the original product.


Scientists have developed a rapeseed hybrid without erucic acid. The plant has taken root all over the world and it was from its seeds that oil began to be produced in many countries - the so-called "canola oil".
What fats does canola oil contain?
Canola oil contains all eight essential acids for any vegetable oil, where 50-66% is oleic acid; the content of linoleic and linolenic acids is also significant - 18-28% and 6-14%, respectively.
For a frying pan or a salad?
What is the best use of canola oil, in particular "Brolio"? An examination carried out in the food chemistry laboratory of the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (there is no such unit in Belarus yet) showed that "Brolio" can be used both for frying and for preparing salads. In salad, this oil has a subtle floral aroma, and it gives a nutty flavor to fried potatoes. True, when frying food on the "Brolio" there is a sour taste.

PINE NUT OIL - a unique product obtained from the kernel of Siberian cedar nuts. Cedar nut oil is easily absorbed by the body, has high nutritional and healing properties, contains a unique complex of vitamins and microelements.
Cedar oil is superior in its properties to the best vegetable oils (sea buckthorn, olive, coconut, almond, etc.) and has no contraindications for use both in food and in therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.
The nutritional properties of cedar nut oil are based on the high content of vitamin F - essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic), which are not synthesized in the body, but come only with food and help lower blood cholesterol levels. Vitamin E (tocopherol), of which cedar nut oil contains 5 times more than olive oil, gives antioxidant properties (oil resistance to rancidity) and helps to improve metabolism in the body. In terms of calorie content, cedar oil surpasses beef and pork fats, and in terms of digestibility, it surpasses chicken eggs!
Use in salad dressings and marinades. Great for baking, especially in doughs, biscuits, breads and coffee cakes. For a sweet treat, lightly heat the butter with honey and lemon juice and drizzle over ice cream or warm biscuit.


Possesses all the advantages of vegetable oils: has a mild pleasant taste, smell and neutral color; a very heat-resistant product that can withstand many heating cycles without losing taste. And most importantly, the product is considered the healthiest for cooking, and this is very important in our time, you see.
Therefore, it is suitable not only for a woman entangled in a huge assortment of different oils, but also for the most true gourmet.
Like other vegetable oils, it does not contain cholesterol and is a supplier of vitamin E, which contributes to normal reproductive function, and the absence of this vitamin leads to infertility. From such a huge number of advantages, we can conclude that margarine and butter should be replaced with coconut.
In addition to all of the above, coconut oil is very useful:
- supplies essential nutrients for health;
- serves as a direct source of energy - digestibility begins right in the mouth;
- reduces the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease;
- reduces the risk of cancer and degenerative processes;
- increases resistance to bacterial, viral, fungal (including yeast forms) infections;
- supports the functions of the immune system, reduces the adaptability of viruses to antibiotics;
- indispensable for people who dream of losing weight, since it is not stored in body fat.
Memo for connoisseurs of tasty and healthy food: for the preparation of confectionery 100 gr. replace margarine or butter with 75 gr. coconut. The result: the natural color of the finished product, a more delicate taste, no "fatty" taste, a significant increase in shelf life and no cholesterol in the product.
Coconut oil hardly reacts with air and therefore remains usable for several years even without a refrigerator.


Hemp-seed oil is obtained from hemp seeds, an Asian herb of the genus Cannabis, which is cultivated in India, Iran, Turkey, Syria, USA, Chile and some other countries. This oil has been one of the main in Russia since ancient times, and only in the 18th-19th centuries it began to be gradually replaced by sunflower oil. The replacement process was fully completed already under Soviet rule. However, hemp oil can rival many vegetable oils in its properties. It is easier to digest than corn oil and contains a number of essential amino acids that are not found in other oils. Studies show that this oil, which is similar in quality to flaxseed, is really effective for health, supporting normal cardiovascular, endocrine and immune systems.


Vegetable fatty oil obtained from the germ of corn seeds. Corn germ oil contains the highest amount of vitamin E. It protects cells from the "attack" of free radicals, improves brain and muscle function. In addition, germ oil contains a lot of linoleic acid, which increases the body's resistance and regulates blood clotting. Corn oil has a stimulating, softening and nourishing effect.
And the content of vitamin E is almost 2 times higher than in traditional sunflower oil
It's no secret that a number of different substances and vitamins are needed to maintain health and vitality. Moreover, each vitamin fulfills its mission in the common cause of maintaining normal life. Vitamin E or tocopherol deserves special attention. "Tocopherol" is a Latin word and it means "bearing offspring." The vitamin was first discovered in the 20s of the twentieth century by the scientist G. Evans, who established the main function of this vitamin - maintaining the normal development of the embryo and the ability to reproduce. Further studies confirmed the value of vitamin E and revealed another amazing property - it protects body tissues from aging and from external toxic effects (unfavorable environmental conditions, cigarette smoke, exhaust gases, etc.). In particular, Vitamin E prolongs the life of red blood cells - blood cells that carry oxygen, helps the body effectively absorb another important vitamin - A, and has anti-carcinogenic properties. We have listed just a small part of the tasks that vitamin E copes with, but this is already enough to understand its exceptional role in a living organism. The daily requirement of an adult for this vitamin is 10 mg (for pregnant and lactating women - about 12 mg). Recall that tocopherol belongs to the FAT-SOLUBLE vitamins, that is, a medium rich in fats is required for its assimilation. And here vegetable oil comes to the rescue, in which both the fats we need and the vital vitamin E are organically combined.The most interesting from the point of view of the balanced composition is CORN oil - the content of basic fatty acids in it is almost evenly distributed between different types.
That is why CORN oil is rightfully considered DIETARY oil. It is also ideal for baby food. Nature itself has created this balance - and we have found a way to preserve all the beneficial properties of this unique oil. It is used directly in food, for the preparation of salads, mayonnaise and margarine, in the baking industry.


Sesame oil is extracted from sesame seeds (a herb, up to 150 cm high, growing throughout India). Sesame seeds have been used since ancient times to obtain valuable oil. They contain fatty oil (up to 60%), which includes glycerides of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic and lignoceric acids; phytosterol, sesamin (chloroform), sesamol, sesamolin, samam, and are also rich in calcium, phosphorus, vitamin E, iron, magnesium and zinc. Thanks to sesamol, it is highly resistant during long-term storage (up to 8 years).
There are two types of sesame seeds - white and black. The highest quality oil is obtained from the white seeds. But black seeds give a higher percentage of oil after pressing. Light is more popular because of its relatively weak aroma; it is used in salads, stews. The dark oil is stronger in terms of aroma intensity and is used mainly in Asian dishes, but, again, only to accentuate the taste. The maximum heating temperature for sesame oil is 215C.
Light reddish brown oil with a pungent sesame seed aroma and nutty flavor - choose cold pressed or "virgin" oil for best quality. Roasted seed oil is darker and tastes stronger.
The oil burns easily, so add it to the dish at the last moment. Not very suitable for roasting as it burns at low temperatures - just sprinkle it on cooked foods before serving for better flavor.
Use sesame seed oil in Chinese, Japanese and Asian dishes; add to marinades or soups before serving. Sprinkle chicken or fish with soy sauce before baking or grilling. Great for salad dressings. For a less aromatic oil, mix it with a milder-scented oil, such as peanut oil (1 part sesame oil to 2 parts "soft" oil).
What to replace:
The oil has a specific taste and smell, so it is better not to replace it with anything. However, there is a way to achieve a semblance of this smell, if you first crush the sesame seed, then fry it in neutral refined vegetable oil.

FROM HAZELNUTS. BUTTER It is as aromatic as walnut oil and can be used in similar ways. Try a drizzle of sliced ​​fresh pears and a slice of brie.


Vegetable fatty oil obtained from flax seeds. An old recipe for health.
Finding one universal remedy for all diseases is a deliberately unattainable goal. But you can find a remedy that will help you defend yourself or fight many diseases. This is LINSEED OIL.
Flaxseed oil is a natural, dietary product made according to old Russian recipes by cold pressing from high-quality flax seeds, a source of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Flaxseed oil has therapeutic and prophylactic properties in violation of fat metabolism, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. It has a normalizing effect on the functions of the liver, thyroid gland, intestines, and stomach.With prolonged use, it reduces blood cholesterol levels. It has a rejuvenating and wound healing effect for burns, frostbite. Nourishes the brain, improves cell metabolism, and provides nervous balance.
Flaxseed oil is a natural source of Omega-3 and Omega-6 with the highest content of these acids (Omega-3 = 60%; Omega-6 = 16%). Omega-3s are also found in sufficient quantities in fish oil, but in the form of a linolenic acid derivative. Their action in the human body is very different. Taking Omega-3s in the form of fish oil can be almost medicinal, with all contraindications. In contrast, Omega-3 in the form of flaxseed oil can be stored by the body and used as needed. Therefore, flaxseed oil is safe even for babies.
During the fasting period, we want to recommend flaxseed oil not only for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, but also as a delicious product that will add variety to your diet and decorate the table.
Linseed oil can be seasoned with cereals, vinaigrette, boiled potatoes, mixed with cottage cheese and yoghurts. Honey enhances the beneficial properties of this oil. However, it oxidizes rather quickly, so it can be stored no more than two and a half months.

MACADAM OIL. Macadamia or macadamia nut oil has a more subtle flavor. It is perfect with fish and vegetables - just drizzle or brush it over the finished dish.


Poppy seed oil (POPPY-SEED OIL) is a pressed product of poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum). Light yellow liquid with a pleasant odor, containing over 70% linoleic and linolenic acids, about 30% oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Poppy seed oil is difficult to rancid. Even the ancients valued poppy oil obtained from poppy seeds for its particularly delicate aroma and pleasant taste. Today it is a rather rare product that is produced in insignificant quantities, which is a pity - this oil gives an amazing taste to fresh vegetable salad. Poppy seed oil is especially prized in Northern France, where it is called huile blanche (white oil).


The high temperature destroys the delicate aroma of almond oil, so its best use is to flavor cold salads, cooked vegetables, pasta dishes. A few drops of almond oil can simply be applied to a slice of toasted bread - delicious.


Sea buckthorn oil is made from sea buckthorn seeds. It has a bright red-orange color and a characteristic (though quite pleasant) smell. It contains a lot of carotenoids, which help to increase immunity. Sea buckthorn oil is a natural antibiotic that perfectly heals wounds and ulcers, restores damaged tissues.


Olive oil (vegetable fat) - made from the fruits (olives) of the evergreen olive tree, which grows mainly in the Mediterranean. The taste, smell and color of the oil (its defining qualities) are influenced by the olive variety, climate, weather conditions, soil properties. The time of collecting olives also plays a role. An early harvest produces a pungent odor and a greenish color. Ripe olives give the oil a golden yellow color and a softer taste. High quality olive oil is usually packed in glass bottles.
The second name of the oil is also known - "Provencal" (by the name of the region in the south-east of France). Just like a hundred years ago, it is highly valued.
The largest producers of olive oil on the world market are Spain (exports products obtained only by primary cold pressing) and Italy. From Italian oils, among the leaders - "Monini" (Monini). The best variety of Spanish olive oil is Borges. Experts believe that the best olives for the production of olive oil are the varieties "blanketa" and "arbequina". Olive oil of these olives is the most aromatic and, in terms of its saturation with healthy substances, it has no equal.Good quality and Maestro de Oliva.
Spanish oil is more expensive because in Spain it is forbidden to mix olive oil with other vegetable oils. Mixtures (mixed, MIXT) - cheaper than 100% oil.
The highest quality and most expensive - 'Virgin olive oil extra' (Extra Virgin, 'glass') - unrefined extra virgin olive oil, first (primary) cold pressed (spremuta a freddo - in Italian) Its price is the maximum. The acidity level may also be indicated on the label. It is preferable that it be low - about 0.5 degrees and not more than one. This oil is good for seasoning salad, seafood and vegetable dishes.
The most expensive oil is Single Estate Extra Virgin olive oil. Cold pressed. The olives are grown without the use of chemicals (fertilizers, pest control agents); the oil is made and poured in one oil mill (mill). Cold pressed is considered the most correct, because olives retain after it all valuable qualities - a special composition of fatty acids: monounsaturated fats of olive oil, which are more useful than polyunsaturated fats of corn.
Refined olive oil is referred to as 'rafined olive oil', 'light olive oil' and also 'pure olive oil' or 'olive oil'. Light, less intense in taste and color. It is used to prepare hot meals.
The cheapest 'pomace olive oil' is the second (hot) pressed oil. It is mainly used for frying and baking.
Low-grade oil - the so-called 'nut', which is obtained in the process of recycling waste, strongly heating the pomace. It contains carcinogenic substances that are harmful to health (benzopyrene), which are formed in vegetable oil at high temperatures. Not recommended for consumption, like fried seeds.
There are also fakes on sale, so you need to choose and buy in company stores, given the high price of oil. You can distinguish real olive oil by placing it in the refrigerator. At a temperature of +5 - +8 ° C, it thickens.
Olive oil - properties
According to the standards of the World Health Organization ('Codex ...') olive oil should contain 65–83% oleic, 3.5–21% linoleic and no more than 0.3% linolenic acids. Linolenic acid is oxidized faster, oleic acid is the slowest.
Experts say that olives contain almost all vitamins and minerals necessary for a person, which are well absorbed by the human body. Unlike animal fats, they bring considerable benefits to the body - they prevent the development of atherosclerosis, heart and vascular diseases, promote the removal of cholesterol, help in the treatment of the digestive system, and strengthen bone tissue. The beneficial acids included in olive oil are necessary as a building material for cell membranes (the body itself synthesizes them only partially). Due to the high content of oleic acid, which has a very beneficial effect on the processes of assimilation and processing of fats, olive oil is classified as a dietary product.
Recent studies have revealed the immunostimulating effect of this natural product. Perhaps the antiatherosclerotic properties of olive oil are explained by the content of biologically active carbohydrates, sterols, terpene disperses and tocopherol in it. The compound oleocanthal has the same analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Oleic acid slows down the aging process. If you eat, in various forms, 40 grams of olive oil per day, the body will be completely supplied with fats.
Due to its chemical composition, olive oil is suitable for the diet of pregnant and lactating mothers, as it contributes to the proper development of the brain and nervous system of children before and after birth. It has been found that the fatty acids in olive oil are very similar to the fats found in breast milk.
The content of linoleic acid, which promotes the elimination of cholesterol from the body, is several times higher than in ordinary vegetable oil.
/ comment of the author of the site - unrefined sunflower oil (cold pressed) contains much more vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) than Provencal, so you should not give up this familiar and healthy vegetable oil.
For treatment and prophylactic purposes, it is recommended to take olive oil on an empty stomach - drink it in the morning or afternoon.
In cooking, refined oils are usually used only for frying foods. Unrefined - seasoned with salads. Given the high calorie content of olive oil (900 kilocalories per 100 g), limit the daily diet to two to three tablespoons
Store olive oil in a cool, dark place (so as not to oxidize), isolating it from foreign odors. The shelf life is indicated on the label (usually no more than two years).

Palm oil is obtained from the pulp or seed of the oil palm, native to Southeast Asia and North America. The pulp contains up to 70% oil, rich in carotenoids and palmitic acid. In terms of its physicochemical properties and nutritional value, palm oil is closer to animal fats. It has a red-orange color and hardens at temperatures below 30? C, outwardly resembles lamb or pork fat and is eaten only when heated (it is unsuitable for preparing cold dishes). Even products cooked in palm oil should only be eaten hot - when cooled, a fatty film forms on the surface of the product. There is practically no cholesterol in palm oil, but its refractoriness makes it difficult to digest, so it does not belong to dietary products. This oil is most widely used in the East, where, for religious reasons, pork fat is not used. In Europe, palm oil accounts for 15% of the total consumption of vegetable oil and is mainly used as a hardener in the production of margarines, confectionery and cooking fats. In frying fats, palm oil is best used with liquid vegetable oil. This oil is widely used in West Africa and Indonesia. In the West, it is used to make margarine, biscuits, and some foods.
The least valuable of all vegetable oils - it contains quite a few useful polyunsaturated acids.

PALMONIC OIL is obtained from the pulp of oil palms by pressing and produced only refined deodorized. Oil is very unstable during storage. It has a solid consistency at room temperature.



Same recommendations as for walnut oil.
It is understood that nut butters have the characteristic aroma of the nuts from which they are derived. This is very convenient in the sense that you can know in advance what taste and smell your dishes will get if you use this or that oil. If you want to enhance the flavor of baked goods that include hazelnuts, use hazelnut oil on a baking dish or on finished baked goods.
Typically, nut butters are sold in dark glass bottles or cans. Store them in the refrigerator or other dark and cool place. Close the lid tightly after each use to minimize contact with air. Walnut oils have one drawback - they deteriorate quickly, so carefully look at the release date and expiration date on the label.


Sunflower oil is one of the best types of vegetable fat. It has a low pour point and a high percentage of health-promoting polyunsaturated fatty acids. In Russia it is the most popular, "folk" of all vegetable oils.
Refined sunflower oil - transparent, golden or light yellow, does not precipitate during storage.
Unrefined oil has a darker color and richer smell. During storage, forms a precipitate (stearins and phospholipids (waxes and paraffins) - precipitate, at low temperatures and over time). Shelf life is less than that of refined.
If the oil smells like fried seeds, it was pressed at high temperatures (in this case, carcinogens appear).More preferable, more useful - the first cold pressing (obtaining by pressing method at temperatures not exceeding 90 degrees).
In sunflower oil, the content of oleic acid can vary from 15 to 65%, lenolic acid - from 20 to 75% (more often, within 45 - 60%). The more southerly and drier the climate of the areas of sunflower cultivation, the more resistant the local oil to oxidation, since the oils of the southern regions contain more saturated and oleic acids. The best oil is from the southern steppes.
Sub. oil contains much more of the strongest natural antioxidant (antioxidant) - alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) than all other oils available to the mass consumer (over 60 mg per 100 g)
In folk medicine, the healing properties of sunflower oil are used to treat lung diseases, thrombophlebitis, intestinal and liver diseases (drink on an empty stomach or in vegetable salads).
It is used as the main raw material in the production of margarine and mayonnaise, as well as in the manufacture of canned vegetables and fish, at home - mainly for dressing salads and soups. Refined oil is also used for frying.
The advantages of unrefined sunflower oil are in its properties:
a) unrefined sunflower oil has a high (compared to other available oils; it is also sufficient in olive oil) content of essential lenolic fatty acid (LA), which regulates the entire metabolism and properties of cell membranes.
b) there is no LA antagonist - lenolenic fatty acid (LNA). For example, flaxseed (40-50%) and soybean (5-10%) oils contain a lot of LNA, which makes these oils undesirable for medical practice.
c) contains very little biologically inactive saturated fat.
d) contains much more of the strongest natural antioxidant (antioxidant) alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) than all other oils available to us, over 60 mg% (in 100 g of oil - more than 60 mg).
e) a lot of antioxidant-synergist (enhancer of antioxidant properties) for alpha-tocopherol: cholinophosphatide-lecithin, from 1.0 to 1.4 g% (in 100 g of oil - 1.0 to 1.4
f) due to a very simple manufacturing technology and low cost - other fats are very rarely and little mixed with it "to save money".

Rapeseed oil

Rapeseed oil is obtained from the seeds of rapeseed, a natural hybrid of collard greens and rapeseed (this plant does not occur in the wild, although rape has been known in the culture for 6 thousand years). Once, rapeseed oil was used only in the Middle East, China and India, but today it is becoming very common in the cuisines of many developed countries, as it contains little cholesterol and complex fats. For example, today in Canada this oil (only refined) is the most popular of all vegetable oil - it is fried in it, added to seasonings for vegetable salads, etc. The most famous trade name of rapeseed oil - Canola - is registered by the WeStеrn Canadian Oilseed Crushers Association. The advantage of this oil over sunflower oil is that it contains only 6% of saturated fatty acids, while twice as much in sunflower oil - 12%. It also contains a lot of useful monounsaturated acids and fats that are vital for the human body. Therefore, all of Europe today relies on rapeseed. In the Czech Republic, for example, this crop occupies 15% of arable land, while in our country, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, just over 2%.


Rice oil is excellent for frying and deep-frying, products cooked in it acquire a special pleasant aroma. Most Japanese restaurants already cook tempura with rice bran oil. It makes French fries and chicken meat just as well. This oil is increasingly used for stir-frying seafood, meat and vegetables, it gives the food the aroma, but never overpowers the inherent flavor.Rice bran oil has an increased resistance to high temperatures compared to other oils, which makes it attractive for the described cooking methods. The oil contains moderate amounts of saturated fat and low (compared to, for example, soybean oil) amount of linolenic acid, which makes it more resistant to oxidation.


Camelina oil - "forgotten", but revived again, is produced from camelina seeds.
The use of camelina oil in food has been limited for a long time, since it contained an antinutrient - erucic acid, which has an adverse effect on the human body.
At present, new, non-erucous varieties of camelina have been developed, and this valuable oil has reappeared on our table. Camelina oil has a specific aroma and taste inherent in cruciferous vegetables (cabbage, radish, horseradish), gives a spicy taste to salads.
It has a high E-vitamin activity: unrefined oil contains 104.9 mg of tocopherols. Camelina oil is a source of magnesium.
It is characterized by high stability to oxidation, despite the high content of PUFAs, since it contains a powerful antioxidant complex, represented by tocopherols, carotenoids, and phosphatides.


Safflower oil is produced from the seeds of safflower - a herbaceous plant of the genus Carthamus of the Asteraceae family, 19 species of which grow wild in the Mediterranean and are widely cultivated in Spain, Portugal, Austria, Hungary, France, India, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, USA, Australia , Brazil and Central Asia. Safflower is a very ancient plant, it is known that the Egyptians as early as the 16th century BC. e. dyed the bandages for their mummies with petals of his small yellow-orange flowers. The oil from its seeds tastes like sunflower, smells like flowers and is very much appreciated by culinary experts: firstly, it contains more unsaturated fatty acids than many other vegetable oils, and secondly, it has a very high smoke point, which is especially good for frying food deep-fried, and thirdly, safflower oil does not solidify even when cooled quite strongly, which makes it indispensable in salads, which are usually served cold. However, safflower oil lacks vitamin E and is therefore considered less nutritious than other oils. Since it is odorless and has the ability to be easily absorbed, it has found its use in various creams and ointments for the skin. Safflower oil is widely used in Asian cuisine.


Soybean oil is obtained from soy beans, which, in addition to a significant amount of oil (15-20%), contain complete proteins. It has a straw-yellow color, a characteristic smell and taste, and goes on sale only refined, but not deodorized. Crude crude oil has a brown color with a greenish tinge, refined oil is light yellow with a specific smell and taste. Soybean takes a leading place in the world production of vegetable oils - it is most widespread in Western Europe, the USA, Japan and China, and in the United States it occupies almost 4/5 of the vegetable oil market. Soybean oil is used in the same way as sunflower oil. In cooking, it is used for frying fish, vegetables, making some dough products, for dressing salads. A very valuable constituent of soybean oil is lecithin, which normalizes blood cholesterol levels. Due to the high content of phosphatides, it is used in the production of bakery products, while the dough becomes more elastic, the structure of the bread improves, and it becomes stale more slowly. Soybean oil is similar in composition to fish oils - they contain the same polyunsaturated acids.Due to the content of substances necessary for the formation of the central nervous system and the visual apparatus, this oil is better than others for baby food. Soybean oil goes rancid easily, so it should not be stored longer than 4-6 months.


It is one of the healthiest oils, with over 90% unsaturated fat, 45 to 60% linoleic acid and up to 15% linolenic acid, rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Pumpkin seed oil of deep dark green or dark brown color, has a strong characteristic aroma. The Austrian Royal Decree of 1773 speaks eloquently about its excellent culinary and medicinal properties: "This healthy oil is unique and too precious to be used in food, so it should be used only as a medicine and should only be distributed through pharmacies." Fortunately for culinary specialists, this decree is no longer valid, and pumpkin seed oil can and should be used in cooking quite legally. They can be used to season salads, meat, legumes, but it is better to do this at the end of cooking, since, like nut oils, pumpkin seed oil does not withstand heating. In salad dressings, but use sparingly as the flavor is very strong. Add to mashed potatoes, drizzle over baked vegetables, or drizzle over grilled or oven-baked fish.


Truffle oil is not obtained by pressing, like other types of oils, but by steeping truffles in olive or grape oil. Depending on the type of truffle, the oil can be from white or black truffles, while the oil from black truffles is more aromatic. A few drops of oil will add a special flavor to any salad or seasoned soup or sauce. Its use may be limited only by your imagination, but just remember that only a few drops are enough to flavor the dish, and such an expensive oil, of course, is not suitable for frying. It is better to fry food in another oil, for example, olive oil, and at the end of cooking add a drop of truffle oil to the hot dish.

PISTACHIO OIL. The oil is deep green in color and somewhat thick in consistency, pistachio oil has a delicious taste. The darker its color, the stronger the aroma it has. Ideal for salads and breads, excellent in pesto.


A wonderful and very aromatic vegetable oil is obtained from hazelnuts, the nuts of which contain more than 50% fat. The main exporter of this rather expensive and young product (it appeared only in the 1970s) is France, where it is produced in small quantities from local nuts, as well as nuts supplied from Italy and Turkey. This oil is used as a seasoning to add nutty flavor and aroma to dressings and sauces, for dressing salads, and is sometimes added to baked goods. The simplest but divine vinaigrette sauce can be made from peanut butter, especially if you use lemon juice, sherry or champagne vinegar instead of ordinary vinegar. It is good to season fish with hazelnut and almond oil. You need to take very little of this oil for refueling - it is very fragrant and bright in taste. Because of its harsh taste, it is often mixed with other types of oils. It should not be used for frying as it has a fairly low smoke point. Hazelnut oil spoils (rancid) rather quickly and is best kept in the refrigerator. It is far from cheap, but tasty and healthy - hazelnut oil has the same percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids as olive oil. In Russia, hazelnut oil is practically unknown, so we could not find the exact adjective to it ("hazelnut" or "hazelnut"); most likely, in this case, the most appropriate generalized term - "peanut butter".


Cottonseed oil is obtained from cotton seeds and is especially popular in Central Asia. Unrefined cottonseed oil is a red-brown liquid with a peculiar smell and bitter taste; refined - straw yellow, practically tasteless and odorless. Only refined oil is used for food, since unrefined oil contains a poisonous substance - gossypol. The chemical composition and properties of cottonseed oil depend on the variety of cotton, as well as on the area and conditions of its cultivation. It consists of a mixture of liquid (70-75%) and solid (25-30%) fats, therefore, during storage, the latter form a plentiful flocculent sediment. When cooled to 0 ° C, cottonseed oil solidifies completely, and upon subsequent heating it melts and becomes transparent. Cottonseed oil is similar in composition to sunflower oil, but is mainly used for hot processing of various products. For dressing salads, a special salad oil is produced - solid ingredients are removed from cottonseed oil by freezing. Such oil does not thicken and does not become cloudy even at a temperature of 0 ° C, which makes it possible to use it for the manufacture of the highest grades of canned fish. Cottonseed oil has a high smoke point and an acceptable polyunsaturated fatty acid content. It is rarely used in Europe.


Using unrefined sunflower oil for this Put the peeled cloves of garlic in a glass jar and fill it with unrefined sunflower oil (the oil smells pleasantly of freshly picked sunflower seeds). The neck of the jar can be closed with a simple plastic lid. Garlic and oil have bactericidal properties and do not need additional heat treatment. After 2-4 weeks, the garlic oil is ready to use.
A spoonful of such oil in festive salads, in mayonnaise and in cereals surprisingly decorates the taste of the dish. When the oil is used up and the garlic acquires an amber color, it should be very finely chopped and slightly heated before use.


St. John's wort
Standard linseed
Tungovoye (Wood)
Tea tree

And other similar vegetable oils, carefully read the composition of the oil and the instructions for use.

Just think: a few years ago, a Russian buyer had no problems with the choice of vegetable oil. On the shelves there were only sunflower, corn and sometimes olive. And now, when the eyes run up from the names and manufacturers on offer, the consumer and expert merchandise experts need fundamental knowledge to understand this diversity.
In the market of vegetable oil, which is always popular with the Russian consumer, since it is also added to salads and is widely used for frying, it is sometimes difficult for a buyer to choose a quality oil from a widely advertised low-quality one. Therefore, both the manufacturer and the distributor are tempted to fake or increase their sales by substituting one type of oil for another, less valuable.
In addition, today not only edible oil is supplied to the market, but also technical oil, technologically processed for food. Therefore, there are problems with conducting a comprehensive examination of the authenticity of all types of vegetable oils sold in the food markets of Russia.
When carrying out an examination of the authenticity of vegetable oils, the following research objectives can be achieved:
♦ identification of the type of vegetable oil;
♦ identification of the variety of vegetable oil;
♦ ways of falsification and methods of their detection.
When carrying out an examination of the authenticity in order to identify the type of vegetable oil, the expert must be familiar with modern research methods for this group of goods, and then determine for himself the range of tasks he solves, based on his level of knowledge in this area. Consider the range of tasks to be solved that a professional expert may have to achieve this goal.
Identification of vegetable oils. Vegetable oil is a ready-to-eat product obtained from seeds or embryos of seeds, fruits of plants by pressing and / or extraction and purified from certain impurities, depending on the type of product obtained.
By the type of fat-containing raw materials, vegetable oil is produced: sunflower, corn, mustard, cottonseed, soybean, peanut, olive, sesame (sesame), coconut, palm kernel, palm, cocoa butter, rapeseed.
According to the degree of suitability for consumption and biological value for food, liquid vegetable oils are arranged in the following order: corn, olive (Provencal), mustard, sunflower, sesame, soybean, peanut, olive (wood), cottonseed, rapeseed, mixtures of various oils.
According to the degree of purification and, accordingly, a decrease in nutritional and biological value, vegetable oils are arranged in the following sequence: unrefined, hydrated, refined non-deodorized, refined deodorized, neutralized non-deodorized, neutralized deodorized.
Unrefined oil contains: triglycerides, free vitamin-like fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic), phosphatides, fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, K), wax, carotene, aromatic substances and other compounds.
The hydrated oil retains: triglycerides, free vitamin-like fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, waxes, carotene, aromatic substances, etc.
In refined non-deodorized oil, only triglycerides, aromatic substances are preserved.
Only triglycerides remain in refined deodorized oil. It is a raw material for the production of margarine and cooking oils and for frying.
The identification indicators of various varieties of vegetable oils are: color number; acid number; moisture content, phosphorus-containing and unsaponifiable substances; sludge by weight.
The examination of authenticity can also be carried out in order to establish a method of falsification of vegetable oils, while there may be the following methods and types of their falsification.
Assortment falsification of vegetable oils can occur due to: re-grading; substitution of one type of oil for another.
A re-grading of vegetable oils is widespread, very often highly refined vegetable oils are substituted for unrefined and even technical types of oils. Thus, unrefined rapeseed oil should not be used for food. Moreover, rapeseed oil contains specific substances that give bitterness to cruciferous plants (cabbage, radish, rapeseed), which are called glycosinolates. These are complex compounds consisting of carbohydrate, sulfur-containing, disulfide and other parts. Practically nobody in the Russian Federation can determine these compounds. However, the certificates of conformity for rapeseed and rapeseed products indicate that the products are certified for these compounds. This is a classic example of the profanation of certification services.
For these compounds, no one controls the quality of rapeseed oil, and it is probably directly used in the widely advertised refined vegetable oils of unknown origin.
More valuable types of oils can also be replaced: corn, sunflower - low-value soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed, etc.Moreover, in a refined form, when specific aromatic and coloring substances have been removed, it is almost impossible to distinguish them from one another in terms of organoleptic characteristics. It is possible to establish their origin only by physical and chemical indicators (see Table 34).
High-quality falsification of vegetable oils can be achieved in the following ways: violation of production technology; violation of the recipe composition; violation of cleaning technology.
There is a danger that the vegetable oil obtained from seeds that have not undergone high-quality cleaning may contain harmful impurities that give the oils a bitterness, resinous taste. For example, poor cleaning of sunflower seeds on primitive technological lines leads to the fact that seeds damaged by worms, with a coating of resin, etc. are not separated. Therefore, the resulting low-quality oils are often passed off as high-quality or they have to be refined.
Finally, there are types of vegetable oils (among them cottonseed, rapeseed, soy), which cannot be eaten without refining at all, since they contain various toxic substances. So, in cottonseed oil there is a strong poison - gossypol, which is removed only when neutralized with anthranilic acid or high heat treatment. Probably, this is where the ancient tradition of Asian peoples originates: when preparing pilaf, cottonseed oil is strongly and for a long time calcined.
Since high-quality Provencal olive oil comes to Russia at a high price, and the demand for this oil is fueled by unhealthy excitement, allegedly by the fact that it has medicinal properties, many manufacturers buy wooden olive oil and dilute it with sunflower, soybean, rapeseed, cottonseed and others. low-quality refined vegetable oils.
There is also a gross falsification, when oils intended only for technical purposes, for example, castor oil, unrefined sunflower 2 grades, etc., are sold as food oils.
Abroad, and at some of our oil extraction plants, the extraction of vegetable oils with gasoline is widely used. With this method of obtaining oils in the cake, fats and fat-like substances practically do not remain, and after pressing, usually from 6 to 13% remains. However, the oil obtained by extraction must necessarily be refined and deodorized so that no traces of gasoline remain. This oil is usually used to make margarine or cooking oils, but very often it is sold as refined deodorized oil.
The shelf life of vegetable oils is only: 4 months - for corn and sunflower, 8 months - for mustard, peanut - up to 6 months. To lengthen the shelf life, not preservatives, but antioxidants are introduced into vegetable oils. But all manufacturers of vegetable oils do not write about these additives on the packaging.
Quantitative falsification of vegetable oils (body kit, measurement) is a deception of the consumer due to significant deviations in the parameters of the can (mass, volume), exceeding the maximum permissible deviations. For example, the net weight of a bottle with vegetable oil is less than what is written on the package itself, or the volume of sunflower oil sold is reduced by reducing the volume of a measuring cup by 1 liter. It is quite simple to identify such a falsification by first measuring the net weight of a bottle with vegetable oil or the volume with verified measuring measures of weight, volume.
Information falsification of vegetable oils is a consumer deception with the help of inaccurate or distorted information about a product.
This type of falsification is carried out by distorting information in shipping documents, labeling and advertising. For example, refined oil, in principle, cannot contain fat-soluble natural vitamins, and the advertisement for Zlato oil claims that this oil contains it. This is a common information falsification.Many vegetable oil packages also indicate that it does not contain cholesterol. But all types of vegetable oil have never contained cholesterol, since this substance is synthesized only by animal organisms. This information misleads the common consumer and is just a publicity stunt.
When falsifying information about vegetable oils, the following data are often distorted or inaccurately indicated:
♦ name of the product;
♦ manufacturer of the goods;
♦ quantity of goods;
♦ introduced food additives - antioxidants.
If in front of you is vegetable sunflower, corn oil, olive oil with the addition of sunflower with a shelf life of more than 4 months and the antioxidant additives (butyloxytoluene, butyloxyanisole) are not indicated on the package, then before you is another fake.
Also, remember that only premium and first grade oils are intended for consumption. If it says on the packaging that this is 2nd grade oil, then this is also a fake.
Information falsification also includes falsification of a quality certificate, customs documents, a bar code, the date of production of vegetable oils, etc.
After reading, there were questions
I often buy various oils of Russian production in 250 ml bottles
flaxseed, nut ..., sesame, pumpkin, etc. I add to salads and cereals for children
many of them say not to heat
Yesterday they brought me the long-awaited Panasonic Bread Maker 257
I asked myself a question to add refined oils to the dough better?
after all, after heat treatment, all the beneficial properties of unrefined oils are lost? And besides, harmful compounds are formed!
And if this is so, then why add different oils to baked goods that are more expensive and there is little benefit?
Maybe I'm not right I would like to know YOUR opinion on this matter
I plan to use refined olive oils (I haven't bought yet) and refined sunflower oils in my daily bread baking.
If you want to make bread as useful as possible, can there be some UNREFINED oils that do not lose their properties after heat treatment?
What oils do YOU ​​use every day?


Any bread you bake at home will be useful! This bread is made at home, from those products that you yourself have chosen and put into the dough.
And the choice of products / raw materials is limited only by your imagination.

Butter has its own specific taste, especially linseed or sesame oil, peanut butter, sometimes you can't eat such bread, you may not like it.

Look for your own taste of bread, bake for health

And if this is so, then why add different oils to baked goods that are more expensive and there is little benefit?

Your right to put butter in the dough and what.
You can successfully bake bread only from flour, water, salt, yeast (sourdough) and the bread will be chic, tasty, homemade, healthy
Quote: inn292

Maybe that's why I "don't understand" why add oil with a unique aroma - I still won't feel the difference with or without it!

So sometimes, we add butter to the dough not only for the scent, in the finished bread you can not feel it. The oil feels good if you grease a fresh crust from the oven with vegetable oil.

Butter is added to the dough for the consistency of the dough, its plasticity, etc. This can be understood when you make control samples of bread - with and without butter. You can also compare the crumb consistency of baking bread in vegetable and butter.

Start baking, and then decide for yourself what and how
Occurs on sale and Ginger vegetable oil.
Its composition: refined sunflower oil, deodorized, frozen, ginger root.

100 g of the product contains: fats - 98.8 g, including polyunsaturated fatty acids - 60.0 g. Caloric content - 914 kcal.

Have you tasted money? Don't rush to give up if you've eaten ginger.In ancient times, they were paid for goods, and now this fragrant spice is used in the preparation of sauces, ginger oil is added to beef, pork and poultry. Ginger oil can be used to treat colds.

"Ginger has the ability to prepare an empty stomach to accept and digest food." Traditional oriental medicine recommends aromatic ginger oil as an effective remedy for poor stomach function.

It is used to improve blood circulation - a spoonful of ginger oil is added to a fresh vegetable salad, and you are guaranteed a surge of energy and well-being. In practice, it is often used to combat aging and to increase male sexual potency and female fertility. Refers to aphrodisiacs.

It has a specific, strong aroma with a refreshing forest, slightly sweetish note, and the taste of ginger oil is spicy and slightly bitter due to the large amount of essential oils.

Ginger oil is added to savory dishes, especially soups, baked pork, game, lamb, various vegetable dishes, rice, scrambled eggs, desserts. It is used in canning cucumbers and pumpkins, in the preparation of gingerbread, cakes, cookies.
It is used for salads, cold dishes, frying.

Source of information - materials of the company Europa-Biopharm
Huge request to share personal experience
Quote: selenа

Huge request to share personal experience

Yes, you can make your own ginger oil, see here:

Chile oil (Admin)

Vegetable oils (used and not used in food)

No chili - read about corn oil and ginger first. It is better to use corn oil, it has absolutely neutral taste and smell. We take ginger to your taste, quantity.
We have read a lot about the fact that olive oil is much healthier than sunflower oil. Here is one of the latest pieces of evidence from Spanish scientists (Comprehensive analysis was carried out by specialists from the University of Granada):

Scientists from the University of Granada have concluded that long-term consumption of sunflower oil leads to serious liver problems. The results of the corresponding study were published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry and in an article on the Medicalxpress website.
The study was conducted on rats. They were divided into three groups. Some took olive oil, others sunflower oil, and others added fish oil to their food. Experts monitored the liver of the animals with an electron microscope to see ultrastructural changes. They also measured the length of the ends of the chromosomes (telomeres).
Healthier livers were found in those rodents who ate olive oil.
At the same time, fibrosis and ultrastructural changes in liver tissue were observed in rats fed with sunflower oil. In addition, scientists have found that sunflower does not significantly increase the risk of developing metabolic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Fish oil also created problems. It increased telomere length and various oxidative processes.
Thus, it was found that sunflower oil and fish oil significantly increase the risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Scientists hope that their research will help prevent and treat serious diseases of this vital human organ.

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