Features of the nutrition of bulbous plants

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Features of the nutrition of bulbous plantsBulbous plants, daffodils and tulips, differ sharply in terms of nutrient requirements at different periods of growth and development. Daffodils, like gladioli, are demanding primarily on nitrogen and nitrogen with potassium. The most crucial stage in their life is the period from the beginning of growth to budding.

During this time, they consume 2.5 times more nitrogen than during the period from budding to flowering. In the transition to peduncle formation, a high demand for nitrogen is combined with an even higher demand for potassium. When potassium is added to nitrogen, plants quickly move to bud setting and flower formation.

Moreover, potassium has a positive effect on the growth and formation of generative organs only at a certain level of nitrogen litany. If there is not enough nitrogen in the soil, then potassium does not show its effect. Better conditions for potassium nutrition also lead to a faster cycle of phosphorus compounds, which ultimately leads to a more economical use of phosphorus, soil and fertilizer.

A very important stage in the development of daffodils is the end of the growing season, when the generative organs are laid (second half of June).

Features of the nutrition of bulbous plantsThere are very few data in the literature on the question of feeding for daffodils. V. A. Alferov recommends to make 3 fertilizing NPK, E. A. Boul and G. E. Kiselev recommend to apply the main part of fertilizers before planting.

Experiments carried out with varieties of daffodils (Sir Watkin Zeurens Koster, Narcissus poeticus, Siam, Apricot Betsy Penn) and other plants 1, 2 and 3 years old showed that the highest decorative qualities and yield of bulbs are obtained from differentiated feeding, in which nitrogen is introduced in the sprouting phase (immediately after the snow melts, after frost), nitrogen with potassium - in the phase of the peduncle emergence, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium - at the beginning of flowering and phosphorus with potassium - at the end of flowering. In this case, the weight of the bulbs is 60-70% more than in the control, the peduncle is longer and the plants bloom earlier.

The introduction of mineral fertilizers in the form of a triple top dressing with full mineral fertilizer for daffodils of the 1st and 2nd year of life sharply reduces their decorative effect and the weight of the bulbs. One-sided nitrogen nutrition during the entire growing season in the form of three additional dressings, although it increases the weight of the ground mass and the yield of bulbs, but the quality of the latter greatly reduces.

The highest effect from differentiated feeding (N; NK, NPK, RK) is manifested in daffodils of the 3rd year of life, this affects primarily the yield of bulbs; which doubles, by 221%, whereas when the same dose of fertilizer is applied, but in the form of three times NPK feeding, it is only 45%.

Features of the nutrition of bulbous plantsStarting from the 3rd year of the growing season, the need for potassium sharply increases in daffodils, they consume much more of it than nitrogen already in the initial period of growth.

Tulips, unlike daffodils, are very demanding on phosphorus and potassium. The increased need for the early phases of development in nitrogen and, above all, in phosphorus with potassium is explained by their biological characteristics. In tulips, simultaneously with vegetative growth, there is an increased growth of generative organs. A relatively moderate level of phosphorus-potassium nutrition in the initial period of growth contributes to the intensification of hydrolytic processes in the bulb, the amicable emergence of seedlings and the rapid development of roots. In the budding and flowering phase, when, along with the development of generative organs, there is an increased growth of daughter bulbs, the need for phosphorus and potassium increases even more.

The most important stage in the life of tulips is the period from budding to flowering, during this time (2 weeks) they consume 56% of the total amount of assimilated nitrogen and 61% of potassium - 3 times more,than in the initial period of growth. In this case, the direction in the consumption of all nutrients is approximately the same, which indicates the same need for them.

Features of the nutrition of bulbous plantsAn equally important stage in the life of tulips is the end of the growing season - the period of relative dormancy of the bulbs. At this time, the buds of the replacement bulb are formed inside the bulb, the rudiment of the future peduncle, leaves and flower.

There are comparatively more indications on the fertilization of tulips in the literature. They can be grouped as follows. For central Russia recommend 2-3 additional fertilizing with full mineral fertilizer during the growing seasons, in the southern regions use the same fertilizing, but with the transfer of some fertilizers in the autumn.

In countries with mild climates, such as Holland, Belgium, Japan, Italy and France, fertilizing in winter is widely used not only with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, but also with nitrogen.

Experiments carried out by tulip varieties Amber, Inglescombe - Pink, Montgomery and others have shown that the positive effect of different fertilizers on tulips is far from the same, and their effect largely depends on the quality and size of the planting material, as well as on the purpose of cultivation. To obtain large bulbs of good quality for tulips, complete mineral fertilization should be applied in 2-3 dressings: the first - at the beginning of growth, in early spring, the second - in the phase of full budding (N: P: K = 1: 2: 2) and the third - in the flowering phase in the same ratio. Such feeding increases the weight of the bulbs by 31 - 57%. When tulips are planted with larger bulbs of 2-3 parsing, the effect of fertilization is somewhat lower.

Features of the nutrition of bulbous plantsWhen growing large cut flowers with long flowering, an indispensable condition is increased nitrogen nutrition in the early period of growth and in the budding phase. Separate plots of land should be set aside for growing tulips for cutting and for obtaining bulbs. On the soils set aside for "cutting" flowers, a positive effect is also exerted by the introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer from the fall of c. combined with two dressings - nitrogen and nitrogen with potassium.

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