RYE FLOUR - VARIETY TYPES AND PROPERTIES
Rye Is one of the most important cereal crops. The consumption rate of rye flour (as a percentage of all cereals) is about 30. Rye flour has numerous beneficial properties. It contains the amino acid necessary for our body - lysine, fiber, manganese, zinc, 30% more iron than wheat flour, 1.5-2 times more magnesium and potassium. Rye bread is baked without yeast and with thick leaven. Therefore, the use of rye bread helps to reduce blood cholesterol, improves metabolism, heart function, removes toxins, helps prevent several dozen diseases, including cancer.
It is useful for people suffering from anemia and diabetes.
But! Due to the increased acidity (7-12 degrees), which protects against mold and destructive processes, rye bread is not recommended for people with high intestinal acidity, suffering from peptic ulcer diseases.
Bread that is 100% rye is really too heavy for daily consumption. The best option is rye 80-85% and wheat 15-25%.
The flour-grinding industry of Russia produces three types of rye flour: SEEDING, GRINDING, WALLPAPER.
The varieties differ from each other in the yield of flour, the degree of grinding and the content of bran particles. The less bran particles in rye flour, the lighter it is.
Unlike wheat flour, rye flour does not have the ability to form gluten and has in its composition in a more active state enzymes that break down starch. Therefore, the main indicator that determines the baking properties of rye flour is autolytic activity, that is, the ability to accumulate a certain amount of water-soluble substances in the dough. The condition of the crumb of rye bread, its stickiness, and the shape of the products depend on this indicator. The dough from it is sticky, and the bread itself is denser and "resinous", with a sharp characteristic taste and smell.
Rye flour absorbs more water than wheat flour.
Rye flour for baking BAKED - grain flour yield 60%, finest grinding.
When finely ground, the flour is tender, consists of small particles of the center of the grain, the outer layers of which are removed.
Peeled flour - Peklevanka - finely ground and sifted rye flour.
Seeded rye flour is the closest in terms of the quality of grinding and the yield of flour from grain - 63-65%.
Rye flour for baking SEED
Grain flour yield is 63-65%.
Seeded rye flour - white, with a creamy or bluish tint. When finely ground, the flour is tender, consists of small particles of the center of the grain, the outer layers of which are removed.
Baking rye flour.
Grain flour yield is 86-87%. The color of the peeled flour is grayish-white or grayish-cream with a greenish and brown tint, interspersed with particles of grain shells. A very valuable and useful product for those who take care of their health. Products made from rye flour are distinguished by original taste combined with low calorie content, high content of vitamins and minerals. When baking, they provide porosity, crumb elasticity and a good roll shape.
Baking rye flour WALLPAPER.
The output of flour from grain is 96-96.5%. The color of the flour is gray with a grayish or brownish tint and with particles of grain shells. In wallpaper flour, the content of bran particles is the highest. In terms of its baking properties, it is inferior to varietal wheat flour, but it is characterized by a higher nutritional value.This flour is used mainly for baking table breads and is the most common.
Wallpaper flour is produced from the whole grain; with coarse grinding, almost all grain is ground into flour, which consists of large particles, contains cell membranes and bran.
The most healthy bread is wholemeal bread (wallpaper), that is, it contains three main components: bran, endosperm, and germ. Such bread contains 2-3 and sometimes 4 times more nutrients than products made from refined white flour.
Rye is classified into three types, using its shape and territorial characteristics of cultivation:
Type I - northern winter,
Type II - southern winter,
Type III - spring.
Type I and II rye are subdivided into subtypes according to the growing regions. Winter rye has higher technological properties than spring rye.
Classification of rye grain by types and subtypes is of great technological importance, since it allows one to determine and use differentiated methods and modes of processing grain of different quality with high efficiency.
PRODUCTION OF BREAD FROM RYE FLOUR
The baking properties of rye flour are somewhat different from wheat flour. Proteins from rye flour do not form elastic and resilient gluten. They are capable of swelling indefinitely and passing into a viscous solution.
The starches in rye flour have the ability to convert to dextrins, which make the crumb sticky. Lactic acid has a great effect on rye dough. The increased acidity of rye dough (PH4.4-4.2), the content of lactic acid in it has a beneficial effect on the structure of rye bread.
In case of insufficient acidity in rye dough, the crumb of bread has increased stickiness and wrinkling. Such a crumb resembles the crumb of unbaked pastry or bread made from flour, ground from sprouted grain.
When preparing rye dough, the task of the technologist is to ensure sufficient rapid and high acid accumulation, since the quality of rye bread depends on the ratio of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, create such conditions under which the number of acid-forming bacteria in rye leavens and dough would be 60..80 times higher than the number of yeast cells. The taste and aroma of rye bread depends on the amount of acids formed.
An increase in the starter temperature from 30 to 40 ° C also accelerates acid accumulation, but reduces the activity of the yeast. Therefore, rye dough is prepared with sourdoughs, which, along with yeast, contain a significant amount of lactic acid bacteria.
The extensibility, firmness, elasticity of the dough and its ability to retain carbon dioxide are critically related to the content and quality of gluten.
The volume of bread, its shape, size and structure of porosity largely depend on the properties of gluten.