Wheat flour is a powdery grinding product of wheat. It is the main component of flour confectionery.

The baking properties of flour depend on a number of indicators.

The most important of them are the content and quality of gluten - a kind of skeleton formed in the dough by protein substances of wheat.
Grit - gluten - 30%
Premium grade - proteins 10.3% gluten - 28%
First grade - proteins 10.6% gluten - 30%
Second grade - proteins 11.7% gluten - 25-28%

Flour can be poor or rich gluten, however, in outlets on packages with flour it is not written how much gluten it contains. In most cases, we buy a mix of different varieties, which contains a medium amount of gluten. Particularly labeled flours are of much better quality.

According to the content of proteins, as well as vitamins Bl, B2, PP and E, second-grade flour and wallpaper are more complete in comparison with flour and flour of the highest and first grades, darker in color.

Grain grain composition:

Wheat grain is covered with a brownish shell, which gives, when milled, bran, which is richer than whole grains in protein, vitamins and especially cellulose. There is an aleurone layer of small granules under the shell. The embryo at the base of the grain is rich in oil as well as protein and minerals. The rest are thin-layer endosperm cells. Filled with starch grains and particles of gluten, which gives the dough viscosity.

Bran - the outer surface of the grain,
Endosperm is the main part of the grain,
The sprout is the smallest part of the grain.

Flour can be fine and coarse.

Coarse flour - whole grain flour. With coarse grinding, almost all the grain is ground into flour, which consists of large particles, contains cell membranes, bran (2nd grade wheat, wallpaper).
Fine flour is flour from the endosperm, i.e. the inner part of the grain. With fine grinding, white flour, tender, consists of small particles of grain, the outer layers of which are removed (wheat 1st grade, premium). Contains mostly starch and gluten, and virtually no fiber.
The finer the grinding and the higher the grade of flour, the less proteins and especially minerals and vitamins in it, but the more starch and the better the digestibility and assimilability of starch and proteins.
As for terminology, coarsely ground grain is called meal, and finer grain is called flour.


The flour-grinding industry in Russia produces wheat flour of the following varieties:

• higher;
• first;
• second;
• wallpaper.

The term "grade of flour" does not mean a reduced or increased quality of flour compared to a higher or lower grade, but indicates that this flour with certain quality characteristics is intended for a specific use in nutrition.

Wheat flour varieties differ from one another in yield (the amount of flour obtained from 100 kg of grain), color, ash content, varying degrees of grinding (particle size), the content of bran particles, and the amount of gluten.

According to the percentage yield of flour when grinding grain, flour varieties are divided into:

grit 10% (it is obtained only 10% of the total amount of grain in a volume of 100 kg.),
premium grade (25-30%),
first grade (72%),
second grade (85%) and
wallpaper (about 93-96%).
The higher the flour yield, the lower the grade.

Coarse - consists of homogeneous small grains of light cream color. There is almost no bran in it. It is rich in gluten and has high baking properties. Grit is produced from special varieties of wheat and is distinguished by the larger size of individual particles.
It is advisable to use this flour for yeast dough with a high sugar and fat content for such products as cakes, buns, etc. For uncooked yeast dough, grit is of little use, since the dough from it is poorly suited, and the finished products have poor porosity and quickly stale.

TOP GRADE FLOUR - differs from grains in that grains are not felt between the fingers when rubbed. Its color is white with a slightly creamy tint. Premium flour contains a very high percentage of gluten.

The best category of the highest grade is called "Extra"... It is often used as a thickener in sauces and is also suitable for baking.

This type of flour is most common in the manufacture of the highest grades of flour products. Wheat flour of the highest grade has good baking properties, products made from it have a good volume and fine developed porosity. This flour is best used for shortcrust, puff and yeast doughs, sauces and flour dressings.

FIRST GRADE FLOUR - soft to the touch, finely ground, white with a slightly yellowish tinge. Flour of the first grade has a sufficiently high content of gluten, which makes the dough from it elastic, and the finished products are of good shape, large volume, pleasant taste and aroma.

Flour of the first grade is good for uncomfortable pastries (rolls, pies, pancakes, pancakes, browning, national types of noodles, etc.), and for baking various bread products. Finished products from it stale more slowly. High-quality bakery and confectionery products are usually made from high-grade wheat flour.

SECOND GRADE FLOUR it is white with a noticeable yellowish or brown tint, contains up to 8% bran, it is much darker than the first-class. It can be light and dark.

The latter is better in terms of baking qualities - baked goods from it are fluffy, with a porous crumb. It is mainly used for baking table varieties of white bread and non-rich flour products. It is often mixed with rye flour. This flour is used in the manufacture of some confectionery products (gingerbread and cookies).

WALLPAPER FLOUR - produced from all types of soft wheat varieties, it contains 2 times more bran than flour of the 2nd grade, color with a brown tint. In wallpaper flour, the content of bran particles is the highest. In terms of its baking properties, it is inferior to varietal wheat flour, but it is characterized by a higher nutritional value. The shells of grain contain protein substances, vitamins of groups B and E, mineral salts of calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium. The kernel of the grain is rich in starch and contains significantly less protein and other nutrients than its peripheral layers. Therefore, flour made from whole grain or with the addition of finely ground bran in their nutritional value is significantly superior to high-grade flour. Wallpaper flour is mainly used for baking table breads and is rarely used in cooking.

BREAD FLOUR (standard flour for baking bread sold in stores) contains a high percentage of proteins (usually 11.5 - 13.5%), which forms the quality gluten necessary for better raising and crust formation. Bread flour can be bleached or unbleached. Sometimes malt flour is added to it to speed up the fermentation process and improve the quality of the dough.
Flour with a high gluten content is used practically only for making yeast dough, for baking homemade bread, bagels, bagels.

WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT FLOUR - ordinary wholemeal flour has a high protein content (11-14% or more), but it does not form as much gluten as bread flour with the same protein content. This is due to the fact that the ovary of wheat contains components that prevent the formation of gluten.For this reason, the dough made from coarse flour differs from the dough made from white flour.
First of all, because it is less sticky and elastic, and also because the product turns out to be denser and coarser. It is also darker in color and rougher in taste.

DURUM HARD WHEAT FLOUR.made from durum wheat.
Durum wheat is not the same as regular wheat used for white flour and wholemeal flour. Durum wheat has very hard grains - much harder than so-called durum wheat, and is very rich in protein (up to 15%). It also contains a lot of carotenoid pigment, which gives the desired golden color to pasta. In addition to the production of pasta, durum flour is used in specific products, such as, for example, Italian semolina bread.
This flour is good for making dough for noodles, dumplings and other products, where there is a possibility of cooking products in water or steam.

TRITICAL - forms of wheat obtained by crossing it with rye
At present, the triticale culture, which has a high yield, winter hardiness and resistance to various diseases, is acquiring great practical interest. This culture combines the biological value of rye protein substances with the unique baking properties of wheat, allows not only to increase the nutritional value of bread, but also to solve the problem of rye deficiency, as well as expand the raw material base of the bakery industry.
The first standards for triticale baked goods also appeared. However, research in this direction in our country is clearly weak, which hinders the spread of this culture in production.
The properties of triticale have not yet been sufficiently studied, and at present it is mainly used as a grain feed crop, since the first test baked goods showed negative results: the bread was low, and the crumb was dense and sticky. Such a low quality of bread is explained by the fact that the triticale culture has inherited from rye increased activity of amylolic enzymes, in particular, amylase.

SPELTA Is an ancient variety of wheat. Due to the fact that it brings lower yields, wheat gradually forced it out of the fields.

POLBA... If the spelled is squeezed still green, unripe, and then dried at a temperature of 120 * C, then such a grain is called spelled. As a result of drying, spelled receives an incomparable spicy and piquant aroma.

SPELTA (POLBA) similar to wheat, but not as weakened by unilateral selection. This cereal requires a special climate, similar to the climate in Switzerland or Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The peculiarity of spelled is that it completely or almost does not tolerate artificial fertilizers, which means that it is impossible to increase its yield in this way. Spelled grain harvested at the stage of milky ripeness and well-dried is used to make porridge and delicious soups. Spelled bread is light and tastes like wheat with a fragrant nutty flavor.
Spelled is richer in protein, unsaturated fatty acids and fiber than regular wheat. Contained in it special soluble carbohydrates - mycopolysaccharides (mucopolysaccharides) - have the ability to strengthen the immune system. The beneficial substances contained in spelled have a high level of solubility, so they are easier and faster absorbed by the body. Spelled has about the same gluten content as regular wheat, if not more. However, it differs in the structure of its constituent amino acids, and therefore affects the human body differently than wheat. Studies carried out in the United States have shown that spelled gluten does not cause allergies in half of the cases in people who are sensitive to this element in wheat grains. Some scientists even argue that, on the contrary, it helps fight celiac disease. The same features of gluten make spelled flour an excellent product for baking healthy bread.Products made from this flour are distinguished by a crispy crust, dense crumb and indescribable aroma and taste. The dough rises almost twice as fast as wheat, and this must be taken into account when preparing dough or baking bakery products in electric bread makers.
Spelled contains almost all the nutrients that a person needs, in a harmonious and balanced quantitative combination - and not only in the shell of the grain, but evenly throughout the grain. This means that it retains the nutritional value in the finished bread, even when finely ground.

Given the variety of quality of harvested wheat, it is classified into separate groups by type, glassiness, flour strength, etc.

The classification of wheat by type is based on the following characteristics: species (soft or hard), shape (spring or winter) and grain color (red or white). According to the standards for wheat harvested and distributed, it is divided into five types:
Type I - spring red-grain,
Type II - firm spring (durum),
III tin - spring white-grain,
IV type - winter red-grain,
Type V - winter white-grain.

The classification of wheat into subtypes is based on the color shade and vitreousness. So, when dividing wheat of types I and IV into subtypes, the shade of color and vitreousness are taken into account, for type II - a shade of color, and for type III - vitreousness. Type V wheat is not subdivided into subtypes. Wheat of I and IV types is of the greatest importance for the milling industry as the most widespread and possessing high technological properties. Wheat type II is used to make pasta flour.
Admin, please tell me, if general-purpose flour contains less gluten than premium flour, what is it better to use? For bread, as I understand it, is it not very good? Or you can mix with v. from.?

Wheat flour for general use is perfect for baking bread. But, if in doubt, you can use various additives in the dough, such as mashed potatoes, potato broth or curd whey, which are great for getting chic bread and crumb.
There are other bread additives, see Bread Ingredients
Arkady _ru
Nekrasovskaya general purpose, which I have, has a protein of 10.3%, which, it seems, is not enough ... But I was surprised that its grade was not indicated, although in appearance it is white, uniformly ground. The shelf life, however, is only 6 months. Does this mean something? Was it not a bummer for an hour all that was swept from the floor?

Almost any Russian flour has such protein, and rarely 12% is typical flour. Look at the info on general-purpose flour, I already gave it here in the topics.
The shelf life is also normal, flour does not last long, especially whole grain flour, which contains endosperm.
Please tell me what is the difference between wholemeal flour and whole grain flour? Garnets has both types of flour and they look slightly different. Although judging by the name they are one and the same ...
I saw on this site a wonderful recipe for rolls (, but flour is used there. I can’t imagine where I can find grain in Moscow (unless it’s in 50 kg bags). Do you think it is possible to replace semolina in the recipe?

Now it's not a problem to buy krupchatka in large supermarket stores, order online or look at our forum in TD stores

Quote: Admin
Krupchatka is not a problem to buy now
Perhaps I don't argue. But the semolina is already on my shelf. It is similar in appearance and consistency, except that it is yellowish, not creamy. So what do you think the replacement will be adequate or not at risk?

I baked bread from semolina and grains:

It also baked on grit, but somewhere the recipe was lost

Semolina is similar to semolina, grit is larger than semolina - bread turns out well, no problem
Thank you, you still have to buy grit for the first time, and then experiment.
This is the question for 2 grade wheat flour.
Has anyone used it in baking?
I bake bread with hop sourdough rye-wheat (or wheat-rye - how is it right? - the ratio of rye / wheat flour is 1 / 2.3).
Usually I try to use 1st grade wheat flour - it is considered that it is healthier than the premium grade.
But the other day I bought 2 grade flour for the occasion (I thought it was even healthier).
Today I put the dough, added wheat flour and 1 grade and 2 grades - equally.
And such a feeling, and even so it is - the dough rises much more slowly.
Could it be from flour of the 2nd grade?
And now I read in the first message that flour of the 2nd grade can be light and dark. This is the first time I ever see this flour, how to define it "light" or "dark"?
So, in general, it feels like it is light. It is a pity, it is written that "dark" is better for baking qualities.

Flour of the 1st or 2nd grade contains a certain amount of bran. The color of the flour depends exactly on the amount of bran, the more there are, the darker the flour will be.
Since flour contains bran, when kneading the dough, you need to increase the amount of liquid so that the dough turns out to be soft (but not liquid), we monitor the flour-liquid balance.

There are enough recipes from such flour on the forum, see the recipes in the Yeast or Sourdough bread section.

It should be taken into account which flour you have more in the dough:
- if wheat, then wheat-rye bread and it is baked according to the rules of wheat bread with two proofings.
- if there is more rye flour, then rye-wheat bread and pastries with one proofing.
GTI Tatiana
Tatyana, Can you give me some advice? I have flour C / W durum wheat produced by Garnets. I want to make bread out of it. Question: do I need to add B. C grade 1 or grade 2 to this flour? It seems that from a purely D / W dough is very heavy. And how many proofers for c / W flour?
I make bread with hop sourdough.

I answer the question in one fell swoop. Bread from central flour flour is gorgeous, and no extra is needed. add flour - the bread is self-sufficient!

Check out this thread:

Whole grain flour gingerbread man. Master Class

Wheat flour in Russia, types, varieties, properties

If you have questions, write in the topic of bread - we'll talk
GTI Tatiana
Tatyana, thank you very much, put the bread. Result
Wheat flour in Russia, types, varieties, properties
Something I got completely confused: what kind of flour is ideally needed for large and highly rich products made from yeast or sourdough dough on dough - such as Easter cakes, panettone, colombe? Either with a high protein content, or gluten, or a variety of extra superfine grinding? From soft or durum wheat? A lot of things have been written, the head is spinning Italians say - manitoba. Where can I get this manitoba for them?
I join the question! Answer please..
I can't get either manitoba or grains. And I really want to bake wonderful Easter cakes

I can't say about Italians, search on Italian sites
In Russia, it is optimal to use premium wheat flour for baked goods and cakes. And look here how and from what we bake cakes and panettone
Well, yes, I'm looking - they all have manitoba. And here the people do not advise, they say - too strong.
I have a lot of experience in baking our, Russian Easter cakes, every year I bake in industrial quantities)). But their structure is still different.
The "Nordic" flour has 13% protein. Maybe try it for cakes?
It seems that there is only ascorbic acid.
Quote: Lara_

It seems that there is only ascorbic acid.

Ascorbic acid is a flour improver Ascorbic acid in bread dough
Quote: Lara_

The "Nordic" flour has 13% protein. Maybe try it for cakes?

New flour that you are going to use again is best tested on a small amount of baked goods.
Try baking a cake-style bun with a little flour.You may have to make several baking options.
Then decide for yourself whether such flour is suitable for cakes, they are also baked from butter dough.
And at the same time, check whether other ingredients are suitable for baking and which ones are better to choose - so that later there are no unpleasant discoveries.

And look in the KULICHI section, what kind of flour for baking Easter cakes our forum users prefer

Easter cakes:
Friends , who uses Novomoskovsk flour, how do you like it?

Wheat flour in Russia, types, varieties, properties
In our Krasnodar network there is such a production of the Tikhoretsk plant. How was she used by someone?

Wheat flour in Russia, types, varieties, properties
Quote: Krosh
who uses Novomoskovsk flour,
Inna, have you tried this flour yet? It is of our production. Once I used it, but flour was generally in short supply and there was no other flour. And it was believed that she was good, there was nothing to compare. Need to buy, try
In my anguish, no one has unsubscribed, apparently in few places where it is obtained. I tried makfu again, didn't like it again. In general, I still can't work out a preference for flour. I also want hard varieties for noodles, and I'm not lucky with it, I can't buy it from us. Upset straight!
Bast1nda, and both flours are of excellent quality. I used it to bake bread, zdoba, eclairs, cakes and pastries, and made pancakes and pancakes. She behaved beautifully everywhere. And you take both types and try which one is best for you.
Painting, Thank you! I already made bread from the "landowner krupnov" yesterday, I liked it. I haven't tried Alekseevskaya yet, it's worth it, waiting. I’ll try her too, but she’s not of the highest grade, I think it’s the very thing for bread.
Natalia, Alekseevskaya is in no way inferior to the highest grade. I baked a loaf from it, so it swelled up so much, the giant just turned out to be very tender and tasty.
Painting, well. Alekseevskaya is also very attractive for our price. Why did I actually ask the question, I thought, suddenly, for inexpensive quality, it will not be very good. but you dispelled my doubts.
A citizen
Quote: Bast1nda
In our Krasnodar network there is such a production of the Tikhoretsk plant. How was she used by someone?
I have already used the "landowner krupnov", I stocked up with 12 packs (2 packs) for a promotion in five (39.90 rubles / 2kg).
I really liked the flour, I used the package, the rest of the bank for baking.
Makfa is also not bad, I do not know why there are any problems with her, I almost never take her just because of the inadequate price.
Bast1nda, the landowner Krupnov took flour recently, very decent flour, and I have not used MacFay for a very long time, because bread hardly rose with it.
A citizen
MacFoo took before the new year for 54 rubles / 2 kg, was released in November, rose normally.
But even that price is twice overstated, and now it is even less expensive than 67 rubles. I don't see it for 2 kg.
Accordingly, there is no particular desire to take it at such a price, especially considering that now there is "large" for baking, which seemed to me even better than makfa.
Quote: kirch
Inna, have you tried this flour yet?

No, Lyudochka, never bought ...

After reading the reviews, I decided to continue using the proven flour ...

Quote: Tanyusha
and I haven't been using MacFay for a very long time, because bread hardly rose with it.

I bake only on "Makfa", the rise is fantastic !!!

And the price for some time now, by the way, is also fantastic ... in my village from 90-100 rubles. for 2 kg.
I have been using MacPha for a long time too. Our price is now 79 rubles for 2 kg.
A citizen
In Auchan, I take Lipetsk under their brand "every day", now 38.51 rubles / 2 kg, which is half the price of makfa.
For infrequent baking of muffins, it's another matter, you need a whiter one, here I took a macfa, and there were no problems with it, but I still liked the large ones more, and its price is still lower than the macfa.
Well, to each his own, but MacFoo hasn't taken it for 3 years, I take flour where the protein is 12 g ..
A citizen
Quote: Tanyusha
Well, to each his own, but MacFoo hasn't taken it for 3 years, I take flour where the protein is 12 g ..
Can you share what brands and how much they cost now?
At an affordable price, so far I have bought only "krupnova", the rest are too expensive.
A citizen, I use Finnish flour, and now I bought Krupnov. About two years ago I really liked Predportovaya, but then it deteriorated and the protein became 10 g, not finding anything more suitable I switched to Finnish.
A citizen
Thank you.
Quote: Tanyusha
to each his own

So no one argues Tanyusha ...

Quote: Tanyusha
I take flour where the protein is 12 g

This has not been brought to us for a long time ... at one time they brought it, it was wonderful flour, both in quality and in price !!!
Do you need to watch the protein in the composition? I never even noticed what they prescribed there. I'll go and study. Thank you very much for sharing your insights!
We have large ones and the price is good. I'll take it for now. If only it does not deteriorate, otherwise we have this happens. The first games are excellent, then it gets worse and narrower.
A citizen
Basically, all 10.3%, which is typical for "average grain in the Russian Federation."
In our south, especially if there is enough nitrogen in the soil, flour can have up to 14-15% protein, but in Siberia and the Far East - only 8-9%.
A citizen, oh how, I did not know about such subtleties. This flour Krupnov and Alekseevskaya is from the south of Russia, our Krasnodar magnet sells them. You need to taste them better in order to understand the difference. Thanks again!
Thanks to those who responded. Krupnov is really good flour. The bread and pastries are excellent. Now I'm in the store on brands unknown to me, I read the composition)))))
And we don't have Krupnov in Pyaterochka. Yesterday I bought Nizhegorodskaya in Magnit. Written is wheat flour No. 5, does not contain GMOs. Protein 11.1g. Nobody tried it?

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