Medicinal chamomile

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Medicinal chamomileAmong the many daisies, favorite wildflowers, there is also a medicinal daisy. Its botanical name is common chamomile, or pharmacy. An important distinguishing feature is the basket's blown-out and hollow bottom.

Chamomile is one of the most popular folk medicinal plants. It is used for a wide variety of diseases: cold, abdominal pain, female diseases, for baths from scrofula.

Medicinal chamomileThe medicinal effect is due to the content of essential oil (0.05-1.0%) in the flower baskets, the main component of which is chamazulene (about 10% in oil).

Pharmacy chamomile is used as an anti-inflammatory and deodorizing agent for diseases of the skin, oral cavity and outer ear. Prescribed in the form of rinsing, rinsing and compresses for gingivitis, stomatitis, vaginitis, urethritis, cystitis, inflammatory dermatoses and trophic ulcers. Inside take at gastritis, colitis, flatulence.

Medicinal chamomileIn all cases, chamomile is used in the form of a hot infusion: 10 g of crushed flowers per 200 ml of water is heated in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, cooled, infused for 3-4 hours, filtered, squeezed out the remainder, boiled water is added to the original volume.

Medicinal chamomileYou can try to prepare chamomile yourself or grow it on your personal plot. To do this, you need to select a well-moistened and cultivated area of ​​soil, free from weeds. For digging, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied per 10 m2 of a plot of 20 kg of rotted manure or peat compost and 120-140 g of nitroammofoska. Then, within 20-25 days (as many as possible), necessary for sedimentation and equal compaction of the soil, it is carefully loosened and harrowed, achieving a good leveling of the site and a fine crumbly structure.

Medicinal chamomileThree terms of sowing chamomile are used. As a rule, the highest yield of inflorescences and seeds is provided by winter sowing, which is carried out 2-3 weeks before the sowing date of winter grain crops. This allows you to start harvesting raw materials in late May - early June; seeds - at the end of June. A guaranteed, but slightly lower yield of inflorescences and seeds is also provided by winter crops (late October - early November). They allow you to start harvesting raw materials at the end of June, and seeds - in mid-July and extend the period of harvesting and post-harvest processing of raw materials until the end of July. Early spring sowing of chamomile is also possible, which allows you to extend the harvesting period until the end of August. They are less effective than winter and podwinter crops. The fact is that the amicable germination of seeds and rooting of chamomile seedlings is possible only with high moisture content of the upper soil layer, especially in the first 5-7 days after sowing. If the spring is friendly, and there is little precipitation during this period, then early spring crops do not provide good seedlings and normal planting density, especially on light loams, sandy loams and sands. In addition, with early spring crops, the timing of harvesting raw materials falls on the hottest period of summer (mid-July), when the intensity of flowering decreases, the size and mass of flowers decrease, and the process of seed ripening accelerates.

Medicinal chamomileSowing chamomile seeds is carried out with a row spacing of 15-22.5 cm in grooves 1-2 cm deep, or with seeds not deeper than 0.5 cm at a seeding rate of 0.7-0.9 g per 10 linear meters. m.

Medicinal chamomileChamomile seeds are very small, therefore, before sowing, they must be mixed with dry river sand in a ratio of 1: 5.

Crop care consists in thoroughly weeding and removing other types of chamomile.

Medicinal chamomileThe inflorescences (baskets) are harvested at the beginning of flowering, when the white corollas of the marginal ligulate flowers are horizontal, and the receptacle has not yet acquired a conical shape.The collection is carried out manually, plucking baskets; special metal combs for combing baskets or special scissors are also used. The inflorescences are dried in artificial dryers at 35-40 ° C, under awnings or in attics with good ventilation, until the baskets begin to disintegrate when squeezed.

Dried raw materials can be stored in paper or plastic bags. The shelf life is one year.

V. B. Zagumennikov

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