Poultry and game - storage and handling

Mcooker: best recipes About kitchen and food

Poultry and game - storage and handlingPoultry meat is rich in water content, it also contains valuable proteins, salts and vitamins.

Raw poultry

Bird. The quality of the meat depends on the type of poultry, its breed, age, and especially on the part of the carcass. The meat of the loin (breast) of the poultry is light in color, and the other parts are darker. Chicken, turkey and pheasant are white, while duck and goose are dark. The taste of the meat depends on the food of the poultry, for example, the meat of geese and ducks that ate fish has an unpleasant taste. In pullets under the age of 1 year, the meat is tastier, softer and more tender, while in older chickens it is coarser and tough, with a bluish tinge. The meat of the males is sharper in taste, with coarser muscular tissue than that of the females.

Game. Game meat differs from poultry meat by its high protein and salt content and a darker brownish color, as well as a peculiar aroma, taste and known hardness.

Poultry and game - storage and handling
Photo MariS

Storage of products of animal origin

Gutted and washed poultry carcasses are stored in the refrigerator or on ice for no longer than 1-2 days. The game is kept un-plucked and un-gutted in cold chambers for 5-6 days, and then they begin to cook.
Primary processing of animal products

For culinary processing, the poultry comes frozen or chilled. It can be gutted (only plucked), semi-gutted (without intestines, but with giblets) and gutted (without intestines and giblets). Game (pheasants, quails, partridges, capercaillies, pigeons, etc.) are delivered un-plucked.

Frozen poultry is thawed by laying the carcass back down in one row on a table in a room with a room temperature, and kept for several hours.

Pinch poultry after immersing it in hot water for one minute. In order not to damage the skin when plucking, it should be stretched with the fingers of the left hand in the place where feathers are pulled out several at a time in the direction opposite to their natural growth. Small hairs remaining on the bird's carcass after plucking are singed on the non-smoking flame of an alcohol or gas burner. The skin of the plucked carcass is pre-dried with a towel, and then the carcass is rubbed with bran or flour, as a result of which small hairs are easily separated from the skin and quickly burn out. Game carcasses are not immersed in hot water before plucking.

The wings of chickens are not chopped off, but in an adult bird, a second joint is chopped off; the legs are cut off at the knee joint.

Gutting is carried out as follows. The skin on the neck is cut from the side of the back, then the neck is chopped off to the base, leaving a part of the skin covering it from the chest side, so that when filling the carcass, you can close its thymus and the place where the neck is cut. The larynx and goiter are removed through an incision in the neck. The abdomen is cut from the sternum to the tail and the insides are removed through the incision - the stomach, intestines, heart and liver, while being careful not to crush the gallbladder. Gutted carcasses are thoroughly washed in cold water, changing it two or three times.

To ensure a more uniform effect of heat during cooking, as well as for the convenience of cutting finished carcasses into portions, they are molded (filled) in three ways: in two threads, in one thread (with a cross) and in a "pocket". When stitching in two threads, the needle is first passed through one wing, and then through the second, pressing them to the carcass; when stitching in one thread (cross), a cook's needle with a thread is passed through the center of the leg, then the needle and thread are transferred under the carcass to its original position, again passed to the end of the protrusion of the sirloin, pressing the legs to the carcass, and a knot is tied on the back; when molding "into a pocket", the skin on the abdomen is cut and the legs are inserted into these cuts.

Cutting into portions, fillet shaping and leg separation

Typically, medium-sized carcasses are cut into five portions: two legs, the back to the brisket, and the front to be divided in two along the sternum to the spine.Larger carcasses are cut into more portions, while smaller ones are cut into fewer pieces.

To separate white meat (fillets), the washed carcass is placed on the back. Then cuts are made in the flaps and legs, the legs are taken to the side. The skin is removed from the loin of the carcass. Very carefully, so as not to tear, separate the white meat from the brisket. The tendon located near the joint of the winglet is also cut, thus cutting off the wing bone together with the fillet. Each fillet consists of two parts: a large fillet (outside) and a small fillet (inside). The wing bone is cleaned from meat and tendons and at the same time the thickened part is chopped off. White meat is cleaned from films and tendons, and then slightly beaten off with a wet hoe to a thickness of 2-3 mm.

Separating meat from bones

The legs are removed from the carcass by cutting the tendons at their joints. The skin is removed.

The meat from the inside is cut to length and cut off near the bone. The lower part of the leg is prepared in the same way. The meat is stripped of tendons and films and slightly beaten.

Poultry food waste

Food waste includes: stomach, liver, heart, neck, head, legs, and wings. The intestines, goiter and gallbladder are not used for cooking. The stomach is cut and the membrane is ripped off from the inside. The gallbladder is carefully cut from the liver. The paws and the head are scalded and cleaned. The stumps are removed from the head, the beak and tongue are removed, and the eyes are taken out. Hemp is removed from the legs, the skin is removed and the claws are chopped off. All processed food waste is thoroughly washed in cold water several times.

Heat treatment of food


You can cook food in water or in an atmosphere of saturated water vapor. There are two ways to boil in water - boiling water and over moderate heat.

When boiling in boiling water, the product is completely covered with it until ready. Since various substances of the product dissolve in cold water, and with slow heating this property increases even more, in the case of the necessary preservation of these substances in the product, it is placed directly into boiling water. This underestimates the extraction of various substances from it.

In normal cooking, the temperature does not exceed 110 ° C. Therefore, it is impossible to shorten the cooking time by increasing the fire.

Moderate cooking is the heating of a product in water that is below its boiling point. Cooking over moderate heat can be applied alone or after boiling in boiling water. This cooking method can be followed by another, in which heat is not transferred directly, but through a water bath. In this case, the food product is separated from the water bath by another vessel. This method of heat treatment is used in case of danger of overheating the product.

Putting the product in boiling water for a short time is called scalding. In some cases, to remove unpleasant aromas and flavors (for example, from spinach), and in other cases, to reduce the volume of the product (for example, when cooking fish), etc., the product is briefly immersed in boiling water. This treatment is called blanching.

You can also cook food with steam. During cooking, the product is placed in mesh metal baskets or on an insert (grid) in a pot or kettle with water so that the water does not come into contact with the product. Then close the lid and boil the water in it; the resulting steam boils the product.

Another method of cooking is in hermetically sealed vessels at increased pressure. With such a heat treatment, the boiling point increases due to the pressure of the evaporating water formed in the hermetically sealed vessel. In this case, the cooking process is the fastest, but this method is almost impossible at home.


Under the influence of the elevated temperature, which is transferred to the products through a small amount of water or steam, the water from the product begins to evaporate.Depending on whether it is necessary to preserve the juices in the product itself or to extract them in large quantities, there are two methods of stewing: stewing after pre-frying the product and stewing without pre-frying.

Stewing after pre-frying the product is used when processing large pieces of meat. When pre-frying the product, a pink-brown crust with a pleasant aroma and taste is formed on all sides. Then a little water or broth is added and the product is extinguished, and the liquid extracts the aromas and flavors contained in it. When the liquid has evaporated, the pieces of meat are again poured with a little liquid. Thus, new aromas and flavors are extracted, which give the characteristic taste and aroma of the meat.

When stewing without preliminary frying, the product does not darken, which is why the juice formed during stewing is lighter and softer in taste.


Under the influence of high temperature, which is transferred through the fat, moisture from the surface of the product quickly evaporates, resulting in a dry brown-red crust with a pleasant aroma and taste. A further increase in temperature causes the crust to burn, giving it a bitter taste. Depending on whether it is necessary to preserve the juices significantly in the product or to extract most of them with fat, two methods of frying are used to use the latter when preparing the sauce: frying in a large amount of fat (deep fat) and frying in a small amount of fat.

When frying in a large amount of fat, the product is completely immersed in the fat heated to 180 ° C. Hot fat enveloping the product creates good heat transfer conditions and ensures uniform crust formation over the entire surface of the product. The ratio between the weight quantities of fat and the product immersed in it must be at least 4: 1, otherwise the fat cools, which significantly worsens the frying conditions. Below the maximum temperature, the fried product absorbs a significant amount of fat, which affects its taste, and the product is difficult to digest.

For deep-frying, deep-fried dishes are used, not tinned, but steel or cast iron, since the dishes deteriorate and oxidize under the influence of high temperature. Fill the dishes with fat no more than half of their capacity, given that fat foams strongly during frying.

Poultry and game - storage and handling
Photo MariS

After several frying, the fat is filtered, otherwise it acquires a dark color, an unpleasant aroma and a bitter taste

Frying with a small amount of fat takes place in an open, shallow container - a frying pan or baking sheet. Fat (5-10% of the weight of the product) is placed on the bottom of the dish, and after it heats up to a temperature of 160 ° C, the fried product is placed. Fat forms a thin layer between the bottom of the pan and the food and, due to its poor thermal conductivity, slows down the temperature rise of the food. Therefore, before the food starts to burn, a normal crust forms on the side that is in direct contact with the bottom of the pan. The product must be turned over to form a crust over the entire surface. Since the fat must be heated to a high level in order to form a crust on the surface of the food at the very beginning of frying, butter is not suitable for frying - it is sensitive to high temperatures and emits unpleasant flavors. Once a crust has formed on the surface of the product, it can be toasted at a moderate fat temperature. If the initial temperature of the fat was not sufficient for crusting, the product loses most of its juice and decreases significantly in volume. Flat pieces of meat must be turned over frequently, otherwise the juice will evaporate quickly.Disruption of the surface crust by piercing the meat with a fork leads to leakage of edible juices, as a result of which the product becomes dry and hard.


Under the influence of the high temperature, which is transmitted through the ambient air, moisture from the surface of the product evaporates quickly, resulting in a dry brown-red crust with a pleasant taste and smell.

Depending on whether it is necessary to preserve the juices in the product itself or to extract them in significant quantities from the product to prepare the liquid part of the dish, there are two methods of roasting: on the wire rack and in the oven.

When frying on the wire rack, the product is in close proximity to a heat source (burning charcoal or an electric coil), due to which the ambient temperature reaches 300-350 ° C. This temperature develops only with this type of heat treatment. The product does not burn when it comes into contact with the grate, if it is well cleaned of burnt particles and greased with lard, which is the most refractory in comparison with all other fats.

When roasting in an oven, the air temperature is also very high, but still lower than when roasting on a wire rack (up to 240 ° C) If the temperature is not lowered after the formation of the crust, the crust will burn, as a result of which the product will acquire an unpleasant odor and bitter taste. On the contrary, if the temperature is not high enough, baking lasts a long time and the product dries out and becomes hard, since the crust forms slowly and the liquid contained in the product evaporates.

During baking, the product is poured with fat in which it is baked, which accelerates the heat process and protects the product from excessive drying. The addition of water during baking softens the resulting surface crust (add water after raising the temperature beforehand).

Fatty foods (pork, geese, turkeys, etc.) are baked with a little hot liquid, as a result of which they are initially stewed. With this preliminary stewing, part of their own fat is released and after evaporation of the liquid, the product is baked in its own fat, which gives it an exceptionally subtle natural aroma and taste.

The poultry is boiled, stewed and baked. Chickens, chickens and adult poultry of other species are boiled with whole carcasses or cut into pieces. Poultry carcasses are placed in cold water (2.5 liters per 1 kg of carcass weight), which is quickly heated to a boil. After boiling, remove the foam from the broth, add salt, aromatic roots and cook at a very low boil. Chickens are boiled for about 1/2 hour, chickens, depending on age - from 1-3 hours.

When letting go, the carcasses are placed in a bowl and poured with broth to 1/3 of the bird's height. After that, the bird is salted, the dishes are covered with a lid and simmered over low heat until tender.

Chickens or carcasses of large poultry (geese, turkeys) are baked, placing their backs down on baking sheets. During baking, it is necessary to periodically turn the carcasses over and pour over the fat and juice released from them. Duration of roasting of chickens is about 1/2 hour, chickens and ducks - about 1 hour, and geese and turkeys - 1 / 2-2 hours.

Poultry can be boiled, simmered, fried, and then baked. Baking has the goal of quickly forming a crispy crust; this requires a higher oven temperature and then the baking process takes place at a lower temperature.

Suyunshalieva B.Kh. Poultry dishes

Freezing berries and fruits   Dietary fats: types and uses

All recipes

© Mcooker: best recipes.

map of site

We advise you to read:

Selection and operation of bread makers