Once amaranth was called "food of the gods", then "food of kings". The ancient Aztecs considered amaranth a magical plant: it was given to warriors and runners to give them supernatural strength and endurance.
Amaranth is one of the oldest grain crops on Earth, and has recently attracted increased attention of specialists and the general public due to its unique properties. The main ones are: high protein content, its balance, as well as a high content of vitamins and minerals. Amaranth has been named the most promising grain crop of the 21st century by UN food experts.
Currently, the use of flour and protein-containing products from amaranth seeds has been substantiated to increase the nutritional value of bakery, flour confectionery, and dairy products. Amaranth flour's superior nutritional value compared to other grains makes it a natural ingredient in baby food and infant formula when combined with wheat or oat flour.
The widest range of application of amaranth in food technology is explained by the presence in all parts of the plant of a large amount of biologically active substances, the highest concentration of which is observed in the seeds. Amaranth has a high protein content and the most balanced amino acid composition.
Amaranth is a famous source of squalene. Squalene is the closest in composition to the human cell, a substance that captures oxygen and saturates the tissues and organs of our body with it through a simple chemical interaction with water.
Experts consider squalene to be an anticancer factor. Squalene is able to increase the activity of the immune system several times, thereby ensuring the body's resistance to various diseases and physical stress. In addition, squalene is a radioprotector (it has the property of protecting the body from radiation).
Squalene is an essential component of the sebaceous glands of human subcutaneous tissue, when damaged, its concentration increases sharply, which indicates its protective role.
Amaranth is a culture of versatile use. From amaranth grain, you can get flour, starch, bran, oil.
Small grains of amaranth are used as an ingredient in the preparation of confectionery: cookies, biscuits, cakes, and other baked products.
Amaranth flour has excellent baking properties. The dough made from it is of the same quality as from wheat flour. When mixed with cereal flour, bread and pastry do not stale for a long time. Amaranth products have valuable dietary properties superior to wheat, rice, corn, soybeans.

It goes well with wheat, spelled and rye when sentencing flour for baking bread. Due to its specific taste and dark color and lack of gluten, buckwheat flour is usually combined with wheat flour (1/4 to 1/2 part buckwheat flour to 1 part wheat flour). Makes the dough steeper and the baked goods themselves "heavier" and denser.
Traditional Russian pancakes are made from it.

There is practically no gluten in chestnut flour. This means that when baking bread from it, binders such as an egg must be added to the dough.To bake bread, chestnut flour should be mixed with wheat flour, spelled in smaller quantities than the main one, about 1/4 or 1/3 of the flour mass.

Flaxseed flour is a product of the grinding of flaxseed meal, although there may be flour and the first pressing.
The value of flaxseed flour is in a large amount of vegetable protein, which is not inferior in value to soy protein.
Protein content - up to 40%, fiber - up to 35%, nutritional value is estimated at 92%.
Flaxseed flour also has medicinal properties: it has a strengthening effect on the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system, prevents the development of atherosclerosis and fat deposits.
It is also noteworthy that flaxseed flour contains seven times more potassium than, for example, bananas. It is also rich in magnesium and zinc.

It is recommended to add flaxseed flour to any dough, when baking bakery and confectionery products, pancakes, pancakes, replacing it with 10-20% wheat flour (flour base). Flaxseed flour can be used in any baking recipe, following some guidelines for the amount of water, yeast and fat:
1. Water. Flaxseed flour has excellent water-retaining properties, which enhances its ability to increase the freshness of products, they do not stale for a long time.
Therefore, when baking with flaxseed flour, more water is required by 75% of the weight of the added flaxseed flour.
2. Yeast. Due to the high fat content of flaxseed flour (up to 40%), it is necessary to increase the added yeast by 5-20% of the amount required for dough recipes - this will increase the shelf life, improve the structure and consistency of the product.
3. Fat. When using flaxseed flour, the need for fat and oil in dough and baking is reduced. The amount of oil and fat is reduced by 30% of the weight of the added flaxseed flour.
It should be noted that baked goods with flaxseed flour form a brown crust faster.

Chickpea flour
It is used in the preparation of tempura (a Japanese cuisine dish - seafood in batter), dough for dumplings and noodles is made from it, added to thicken sauces and soups.
For baking bread, chickpea flour should be mixed with wheat flour, spelled in smaller quantities than the main one.
It is impossible to cook at home, since household appliances are not able to grind hard chickpeas into flour.

Especially good for making "quick bread" like tortillas and biscuits. It makes baked goods more crumbly, albeit damp. However, oats have a small percentage of starch and have an excess of fat. Oats are perfectly processed into oatmeal, and then into flour and can serve as a substitute for wheat flour, but remember that the content of oatmeal should not exceed one third of the total flour. To make such flour on your own, it is enough to grind oatmeal in a blender. It takes 1 1/4 cups of cereal to make 1 cup flour. Due to the low gluten content for baking, oat flour must be mixed with wheat flour.
Oats have easily digestible carbohydrates and help the body produce a hormone called serotonin, which is responsible for positive emotions.
Tolokno is a flour made from oat grains. One of the oat flour preparations used in food.
The sifted oats, after boiling it with water in a Russian stove, are thrown back onto the sieve during the entire heating period, and when all the liquid has drained, it is dried for two days on the hearth of the same stove. At the same time, the oats turn slightly red and fried. Dried oats are pounded 3-4 times in a wooden mortar, sifting the waste through a sieve each time. The clean roasted groats remaining on the last are ground into flour. The resulting product - oatmeal - is quite tasty, with a pleasant smell reminiscent of the smell of cocoa. Oatmeal, like other oat preparations, is characterized, like the oat grain itself, by a high content of protein substances and fat.By the amount of the latter, oats and its preparations are closest to maize (about 5%), and by the content of protein substances - to wheat (about 19%).
Oat flakes "Hercules" and oatmeal cooked in milk are almost completely absorbed by the body.
Oats are a source of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins of group B, E, A, trace elements phosphorus, calcium, dietary fiber (cellulose). The amino acid composition of oats is closest to muscle protein, which makes it the most valuable product.
100 grams of oatmeal contains:
Proteins - 11.5 g.
Fat - 6 g.
B-carotene - 64.9 g.
Vitamins PP - 1.55 mg, B1 - 0.42 mg, B2 - 0.04 mg
Mineral substances Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe
The oatmeal contains a substance useful for the body - lecithin.
The inclusion of oatmeal in the diet promotes the elimination of lead from the body.
It is also known that oatmeal is still the staple food of Tibetan monks.
Tolokno is a once widespread Russian folk product. Today, oatmeal is used much less often and, mainly, as a dietary remedy for the nutrition of children.

Since oatmeal is a type of oat flour, it can be used in bakery and bakery products, gradually adding to the dough, does not contain gluten.
Soy is not a cereal; it belongs to the legume family.
Available unroasted and fried.
Unfried soy flour contains very active enzymes useful in making yeast bread, works well in making yeast bread, provided that it is added in very small amounts (0.5%). Large amounts will damage the taste and texture of the product. It has an almost snowy whiteness, improves the color of the crust and allows the bread to stay stale longer.
After roasting, soy flour acquires a more expressive taste.
Soy flour increases the absorption of water in the dough and reduces the absorption of fat. Sometimes it acts as a substitute for milk and even eggs.
Soy flour does not contain gluten-forming proteins. For baking bread, soy flour should be mixed with wheat flour, spelled in smaller quantities than the main one.

Soy flour is used as an improver in bakery and pasta industry (it can be added to wheat flour in an amount of 3-5%), as well as in the confectionery industry and for making sauces.

Malt flour, or malt, is most commonly milled from barley, but also from wheat or other cereals. Malting is a process in which whole grains sprout or sprout under special control, after which the grains are dried and ground into flour.
Malt contains sugar, minerals and valuable enzymes, including amylase, which are very important for the baking process of bread, biscuits and biscuits. Firstly, it helps to speed up the fermentation process, and the correct fermentation process involves the release of the required amount of carbon dioxide. Secondly, malt grains give the dough a special sweet spicy taste, improve the color of the dough and prevent the hardening process.
Malt flour can add stickiness and crease to baked bread. The crumb of such bread resembles the crumb of unbaked bread.
Millet it is considered a valuable cereal due to its mineral content, but it lacks gluten. When baking, you need to add binders such as an egg. Mixed with other cereals, millet gives the bread a unique taste. Sometimes millet (small yellow round grains) is added to bread unmilled - to give a natural "grain" taste, they must first be soaked. The bread made with millet flour is especially crispy.

Rice flour is made from crushed rice grits.
Flour is especially valuable for the production of dietary anti-allergenic foods.
Considering that rice contains less protein, fiber and sodium in comparison with other cereals, it is widely used in medical and dietary nutrition in diet therapy of patients with acute and chronic enterocolitis, cardiovascular and other diseases.
Rice groats are a source of vegetable protein, complete in amino acid composition, which is close to buckwheat grain proteins. It is rich in vitamins (B1, B2), phosphorus-containing substances, including especially valuable ones - phytin and lecithin.
Analysis of the chemical composition showed that rice flour (hereinafter RM) contains 2 times less fat than premium wheat flour. Fats, present in small amounts (0.6%), play an important role in determining the nutritional value and shelf life of a product and are characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. The latter, on the one hand, increase the biological value of the product, and on the other hand, are the reason for their easy oxidation. Rice groats contain a significant amount of starch (81.6%), easily digestible and assimilable, and very little fiber (0.4-0.5%) and mono- and disaccharides (0.4-0.5%).
The absence of proteins in the RM that can form a mass similar to wheat gluten imposes certain difficulties on its use in the production of bread products. However, due to the fact that rice starch is more susceptible to amylolytic enzymes, the introduction of a certain amount of PM into the dough formulation from wheat flour leads to the intensification of biochemical and microbiological processes, increases the quality of products, and reduces technological costs. At the same time, the dietary properties of the products are increased.
Rice flour is gluten free and cannot be used to bake yeast bread.
The use of PM in combination with wheat flour is one of the easiest ways to use it in the baking industry.
With an increase in the amount of introduced PM, both the appearance and the physicochemical properties of this type of product change.
It has been established that when PM is added up to 10%, it helps to increase the volume of bakery products, improve the structure of porosity, and strengthen gluten. However, when more than 20% of PM is added, the elasticity of the dough deteriorates, some darkening of the crumb is observed and cracks and tears appear on the surface of the products, i.e., the quality of the product decreases.
Bread baked with rice flour crumbles easily, becomes crispy and has a grainy texture.
When rice flour is added to low grades of wheat flour (semi-brittle or flour of I and II grades), products of lighter shades are obtained.

Rice flour is not only used as a substitute for gluten flour, in some recipes, desserts and baked goods with it are much tastier. It is widely used in Asian cuisine for baking sticky coconut cakes and sweets.
Bread baked with rice flour crumbles easily, becomes crispy and has a grainy texture. Serve these breads toasted or grilled and you will love them immensely. When using rice flour, there is one problem - the products are dry (as with any other non-wheat flour), since the flour absorbs a lot of moisture. Just add more liquid or eggs and store the finished product in a tight-fitting container.
Freshly ground rice flour is best - the finer the better. As a general rule of thumb, use a quarter of normal flour (or one-fifth when baking bread) and add a little more water. Rice flour makes a good pancake dough, it is often used in baby food. However, it cannot be used for yeast cakes and breads due to the lack of gluten. And keep in mind that rice flour products take longer to bake at a lower temperature than wheat flour products.

Traditionally, lentils are considered monastic culture.
Lentil seeds contain from 24 to 35% protein, carbohydrates - from 48 to 53%, fat - from 0.6 to 2%, from 2.3 to 4.4% of minerals, it is also a good source of B vitamins. Germinating seeds contain vitamin C.
Lentil protein, which contains vital amino acids, is well absorbed by the body. The energy value of 100 g of seeds is 310 kcal.
Lentils do not accumulate nitrates, toxic elements, radionuclides and can be considered an environmentally friendly product. In terms of taste and nutritional value, lentils are one of the first among cereal legumes. It boils well in 40-70 minutes and has a delicate and pleasant taste. Cutlets, filling for pies and other dishes made from lentils differ little in taste and nutritional value from meat ones. It is used to prepare a variety of table dishes: soup (stew), porridge, mashed potatoes, pates, jelly.
Lentil cereals and flour are equally important. Lentils are more nutritious than whole seeds due to the fact that the seed coat is removed during processing. Flour is most widely used in the baking industry, especially in the manufacture of biscuits. Adding it to wheat in the amount of 15-20% increases the protein content in bread by 3-4%. Lentil flour is also used in the confectionery and gastronomic industries in the manufacture of coffee, cocoa, sweets, biscuits, chocolate, and sausages.

Since the gluten content in barley is low, it cannot be the main component for making bread from yeast or sourdough dough. Barley is also used when mixed with other grains, mainly wheat, spelled, and rarely rye. It has a moderate, mild aroma and a light nutty taste. Gives softness to baked goods. Bread with an admixture of barley has a tart taste.
Whole barley grains, which must first be soaked in water, can also be mixed with bread dough to give the bread a grainy flavor.
Barley flour works well in pancakes, cookies and quick bread. Can be added as a thickener to soups and sauces.


Types, varieties, and properties of flour from various grains and cereals

Useful properties of corn flour

Corn flour contains sugars, B vitamins, PP vitamins, mineral salts of potassium, iron, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, carotene, starch. In terms of its nutritional and beneficial properties, this flour is much better than wheat or any other flour.

Its use helps to restore the functioning of the intestines and stomach, normalizes the internal microflora. Even in spite of the fact that it has much higher indices of acidity, fat content and calorie content, corn flour has high taste, does not increase the prothrombin index and helps to normalize blood cholesterol levels and the state of blood vessels.

The best quality flour is obtained from hard varieties of corn, which can be either coarse or finely ground. Fine flour is used for the preparation of pastry baked goods. Its presence makes it possible to obtain more fluffy and crumbly products, which have a specific taste of corn. Such flour is added in small quantities to some types of wheat and rye bread to give it a special taste.

Coarse flour is used for the production of corn bread, which, in terms of its consumer qualities, is extremely useful for digestion.

Milling of corn flour, depending on the technology used, is of two types: fine and coarse. In the first case, it is used in confectionery, which makes cakes, cookies and pastries more crumbly and more pleasant to the taste, and also gives them a peculiar spicy aroma, and in the second case, corn flour is used to make coarse grained bread, which is also very useful for digestion.

From the first, a slightly grainy bread is obtained, more crumbly and dense, from the second - the bread is more tender and rises better. Many national dishes are prepared from corn flour: hominy, polenta, ugali, banush, bulamik, traditional Mexican flatbreads, etc.

In the process of making corn flour, the germ of the grain, which contains up to 35% fat, is separated from the fruit pits. It is very well suited as a binder for the manufacture of sausages, brewing, etc. Since corn flour has the property of slowing down the fermentation of carbohydrates, dishes and cereals made with the addition of this flour last a long time, which cannot be said about the flour itself: it is advisable to use it within a short period after grinding.

It should be noted that corn flour is gluten free and must be mixed with wheat flour for baking bread, the maximum amount of corn flour is not more than 30%.
The ratio of wheat and corn flour should be selected carefully, the higher the content of corn flour, the lower the bread can, and the drier, and the higher the crumbliness of the crumb.
It is advisable to add vegetable or butter oil to such bread, to the dough.

I will add more information about flour from various types of grains, seeds

The main types of flour are distinguished mainly by the initial grinding product:

Grain flour - Amaranth, Buckwheat, Corn, Dagussa, Mogar, Oats, Millet, Paiza, Wheat, Spelled, Rye, Rice, Sorghum, Chumiza and, of course, Barley. And also the so-called "pseudo-grain" crops, which are similar in many respects to grain crops, are Kinva from the Amaranth family (other names: rice quinoa and Chilean wild buckwheat). The bulk of flour is made from wheat - the basis of bread.

Flour produced from leguminous crops - Peas, Common bean (garden bean and Russian bean), Lupine, Soybeans (soybeans), Beans,, Mung beans, Chickpeas (chickpeas) Lentils and China;
Plant flour (flour made from herbs, fruits, berries, vegetables, seeds, etc.). It is mainly used in cooking and traditional medicine as a homeopathic or dietary supplement. Most often it is processed into flour, herbs, fruits and berries, flax, sesame seeds, pine needles, wood, vegetables (potatoes, pumpkin), yeast, sugar;

Flour produced from animal products, also used as an effective complementary food for plants and livestock and as a biologically active additive - bone meal, egg shell meal, blood meal, etc .;

Mineral flour - a product of fine grinding of minerals - dolomite, salt, phosphorite, limestone, etc.

A separate industry is engaged in the production of flour - the MILLING-LARGE INDUSTRY. In general, grain production has become one of the largest and oldest sectors of the world economy. The well-known history of flour begins 10 thousand years ago, and according to some sources, even 40 thousand years and even hundreds of thousands of years. Actually, the entire history of mankind is associated with bread, and therefore with flour.

The following types of flour are most commonly used :

Wheat flour - In Russia, bakery wheat flour is produced (classified) of six grades: extra class, premium, cereal, first and second grades, wallpaper flour. It is regulated by GOST R 52189-2003 and GOST 12183-66;

Rye flour - three main varieties are produced: seeded, peeled and wallpaper. Rye flour is naturally used to bake rye bread. The production of rye flour is regulated by GOST 7045-90 and GOST 12183-66;

Rice flour - the production of flour from rice is determined by GOST 27168-86, usually from rice cereals of the "Extra" class. Rice flour does not have its own pronounced taste and smell, but it has high consumer and stable properties - a high ability to retain moisture (up to 600%);

Buckwheat flour - Buckwheat and flour are well stored, since the vegetable fats included in their composition are resistant to oxidation and destruction.The production of buckwheat flour is regulated by GOST R 53495-09 and GOST 27168-86;

Corn flour... In terms of nutritional and beneficial properties, corn flour is slightly better than wheat flour - it has a higher fatty acid content and calorie content, corn flour has excellent taste, and it also normalizes blood cholesterol levels. The production of flour from corn is regulated by GOST 14176-69. The highest quality corn flour is produced from hard corn varieties and can be coarse and finely ground;

Oat flour - Production of flour from oats is regulated by GOST 27168 and GOST 2929-75. Diverse and peculiar vitamin and amino acid composition, unique useful and medicinal properties of oats, have long been used in folk medicine and, of course, adopted in the pharmaceutical industry. The grain of oats contains up to 60% starch, up to 20% fiber and 20% of proteins, many amino acids necessary for the body: especially lysine and tryptophan (the latter deserves a separate article), oats are very rich in vitamins of groups B, E and A. Oats probably take first place among healthy food products;

Barley flour - The famous barley, pearl barley flour - Barley flour is unique - it has a high moisture and fat-binding capacity. Due to these properties, it is widely used in the production of meat and sausages. In recent years, dietetic food manufacturers have added barley flour to their products, not soy or pea flour. Barley flour is rich in b-glucan polysaccharides, which have a cholesterol-lowering effect, and is characterized by a good ratio between starches and proteins. Barley flour contains a lot of provitamin A, vitamins B and mineral elements: Ca, P, I, in comparison with flour from other cereals, especially a lot of silicic acid. The production of barley flour is regulated by GOST 5784-60;

Amaranth flour, amaranth flour is a new and well-forgotten old word in the bakery industry. Amaranth between plants has become the leader in the number of unique and irreplaceable amino acids and mineral elements, and its grains contain 60% starch, 20% high-quality protein, 8% oil and 2% vitamins, surpassing most cereals in these indicators. Amaranth's remarkable food properties have allowed the United Nations Food Commission (FOA) to call amaranth no less than a 21st century culture. Amaranth 8 thousand years was the main grain crop in South America and Mexico (even called - "Aztec wheat", "Inca bread"), competing with beans and corn. After the conquest (the Spanish conquest of America), unfortunately, this culture was forgotten, like much of the culture of these unique civilizations. In Asia, today amaranth is popular in the mountainous regions of Pakistan, India, Nepal and even China as a cereal and (surprisingly!) Vegetable crop, notable in the total amount of food. Amaranth flour is not regulated by GOSTs in Russia;

Flaxseed flour, flax seed flour. Flaxseed flour in Russia is produced in two types according to the grinding stage: fine grinding (grinding particle size up to 1 mm), and coarse grinding (particle size 2 mm). Flaxseed flour is made from thoroughly cleaned oil flax seeds (cleaning is determined in accordance with GOST 10582.). Chemically, flaxseed flour contains: from 12% to 20% - fats (of which most of 75% - omega 6 (linoleic acid), and about 15% oleic acid - Omega 9), and at least 8% linolenic acid - omega-3 ); dietary fiber is about 40% (of which 7% is fiber), 30% is protein, 38% is carbohydrates (although only 8% are digestible). Flaxseed flour in the food industry is used in the production of food concentrates, bakery products, and, of course, in homeopathy as a useful additive - for enriching foods with unsaturated fatty acids, as well as protein and dietary fiber.In addition, only one part of flaxseed flour jelly (binds) as many as six parts of water - not gelatin, of course, but a very effective culinary additive;

Fish flour (production of flour from fish is a long-standing industry of modern man) - Fish meal is a product produced by drying and grinding waste from fish processing, crustaceans, from waste obtained during processing into sea products. Fishmeal is used for the production of feed for pigs, poultry and other farm animals, for artificial fish breeding. The production of fishmeal in the world exceeds 5 million tons per year. The largest producers of fishmeal in the world are Peru, Chile, Thailand;

Bone flour, meat and bone meal (bone meat, meat), chicken meal. Flour production is located near meat processing plants and poultry factories. Bone meal is mainly used as a phosphorus fertilizer (contains 30-35% P2O5) for tub crops (these are citrus fruits - tangerines and lemons, laurel cherries) and other plants, including open ground. It is considered a slow acting but necessary fertilizer. Also, bone meal is used as a dietary supplement in alternative and official medicine;

Soy flour - Soy flour is a rather valuable food product produced from soy seeds (as well as from soybean meal). Soy flour is valuable because it increases the biological and nutritional value of almost any product, enriching the mixture with proteins, vegetable fats and lecithin, in addition, it contains as yet little-studied substances - islectanes. This has led to almost ubiquitous soy supplementation where and when needed - it's cheaper! Unfortunately, now almost all soybeans are genetically modified. Natural soybeans, including due to cross-pollination with mutant ones, can no longer be found. The discussion of the harm and benefits of soybeans, and genetically modified products in general, is beyond the scope of this article. Soy flour production is focused on the meat (sausage) and bakery industries, as well as, which is unlikely to please healthy food lovers, in the manufacture of "quick" or "one-time" dry breakfast cereals, adding directly to the base of the dough;

Dolomite flour (or lime flour). Limestone flour production (natural dolomite grinding) - gives a mineral product - dolomite flour. Dolomite flour is the main and very valuable lime fertilizer for vegetables (carrots, beets, potatoes), agricultural plants (clover, alfalfa, onions, flax), and other crops;

Herbal flour, vitamin flour , vitamin-herbal flour - is most often used as a vitamin-protein feed obtained from dried herbs. Therefore, the production of flour from herbs is also organized as a subsidiary farm in livestock collective farms and farms. The raw material for the production of grass meal is sown and wild perennial and annual meadow grasses. Herbal flour is useful due to the high content of carotenoids (α.β, γ, δ) - special fat- and water-soluble vitamins. (Everything is regulated by OST 10 242-2000). Herbal flour in its various forms is a valuable raw material for pharmacology, homeopathy and, of course, traditional medicine.

Pea flour - a product of the production of flour from peas is used in the production of sausages and sausages, and in bread production, where pea or soy flour serves as the main protein fortifier;
Wood flour - as the name implies - Wood flour, a free-flowing product obtained by mechanical (dry) grinding of wood chips. Interestingly, wood flour is a component of many explosives and building materials; and is also used in the production of titanium dioxide. Wood flour is also used as a polishing material. The production of wood flour takes place in special equipment - in impact mills and in pendulum roller mills. Flour is taken out through sieves and in air separators;

Pine flour - the production of flour from pine needles has been mastered for a long time.The raw material for coniferous or grass flour is usually a coniferous leg (up to 20 cm) or a branch. Needles are an excellent source of carotene (contains up to 300 mg / kg), and during the year its content in needles practically does not change. Pine flour is rich in vitamin C - its content is up to 300 mg / kg). In contrast to corotins, the level of vitamin C in needles increases in winter to 600 mg / kg, and in summer it decreases markedly to 250 mg / kg (content in dry matter). You need to store needles in the cold: Storing spruce needles at 8 degrees C per month leads to a loss of up to 35% of carotene, and when stored at temperatures below 5 degrees C, no drop in vitamin C is observed. Therefore, the needles for traditional medicine are stored in light frost. Fresh needles of ordinary spruces and pines contain up to 350 mg / kg of vitamin E. In addition, pine flour is rich in other substances: 1 kg. dry needles (both spruce and pine) contain vitamins in mg: R - up to 3800, K - up to 20, PP - 142, B1 - 20, B2 - 10, B3 - 30, B6 - 2, H - 0.15; trace elements - cobalt, manganese, iron, magnesium and others. ; there are many amino acids, including essential ones. Even the simplest technology for the production of coniferous flour retains most of the nutrients (vitamins and trace elements); Pine flour is one of the folk remedies for the treatment of vitamin deficiency, and baths with it are an excellent remedy for dermatoses, nervous exhaustion and depression. It goes well with seaweed flour, other iodine-rich foods and sea salt to enhance each other's actions.

Almond flour - production of flour by grinding almonds, used for the manufacture of nut fillings and sandy-nut semi-finished products in confectionery and home cooking. Almond flour is appreciated as an additive and is suitable for all types of dough, and as a completely independent dish. With her, for example, they prepare almond cream - a very tasty filling for baking buns and tartlets. Almond flour is also used in cooking to create a thicker consistency in a number of sauces and soups, traditional for Mediterranean cuisine;

Bird cherry flour - The production of flour from dried fruits of bird cherry is intended primarily for the needs of cooking and medicine. The collection of cherry fruits is carried out in many regions of Russia. This is both spice and medicine, especially in the treatment of a number of eye and gastrointestinal diseases. For a long time, bird cherry flour has been a folk remedy;

Chickpea flour - the production of chickpea flour is focused on culinary, home cooking. And even traditional medicine. Chickpea flour is the basis for the production of Indian sweets, thick soups, pancakes and other original dishes .. Chickpea flour, used for washing, cleanses the skin well, removes blackheads;

Potato flour - flour potatoes - dried potatoes, ground into flour. Unfortunately, the production of flour from potatoes is still underdeveloped, but this is a very promising direction of the food industry. Potato flour can be combined (the professional term is blended) with other types of flour in the manufacture of unique culinary products based on dough. So, when mixing potato flour 1: 1 or even 1: 3 with wheat (or rye) flour, a factory is obtained for making a special dough for Taron noodles used in Armenian cuisine. Pancakes made from potato flour, drinks with the addition of it - all this is only part of the culinary potential of this product. Potato flour is also used in the preparation of a number of food concentrates, and in agriculture for fattening pigs and livestock. It is sometimes incorrectly called starch - it is another substance;

Feed flour - flour compound feed - production of flour for compound feed is regulated by GOST 13496.12-98 Combined feed, compound feed raw materials.

Pumpkin flour - ground pumpkin cake, obtained by pressing oil from pumpkin seeds. The production of pumpkin flour is combined with the production of butter.Pumpkin seed flour is rich in vitamins of groups C, B, as well as trace elements - potassium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc and others, as well as dietary fiber. Pumpkin meal contains the amino acids isoleucine, methionine and cysteine, leucine, glutamine, glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, valine and others;

Yeast flour - the production of flour from yeast is focused on the production of biologically active additives that increase immunity and the needs of the microbiological and medical industries;

Tempura flour, Tempura flour production is intended for the national cuisine of many Asian countries. Tempura flour consists of a mixture of wheat, rice flour and potato starch with salt. Tempura flour is a Japanese (Chinese cuisine) bread flour for making a kind of batter and many oriental dishes. It is used to cook hot (tempura) vegetables and seafood, which are dipped in tempura batter - and deep fried - in a deep skillet with boiling oil. The batter should be non-uniform so that air bubbles remain, making it thin, juicy and crispy when fried (tempura);

Cedar flour - Production of flour from pine nuts consists in squeezing the kernel of the pine nuts. This is a unique but expensive product. By its nutritional qualities and composition, cedar flour is close to soybeans and nuts, in some respects it is noticeably superior to them. But the fact that cedar flour does not contain genetically modified products is a fact. We haven't had time yet. Absolutely all the vitamins and minerals found in the recognized homeopathic remedy - pine nuts remain in the cedar flour, and up to 30% of the cedar nut oil remains. Together with milk thistle oil, the effect of cedar flour is enhanced. Mainly produced in Altai and the Far East;

Nut flour - the production of flour from nuts is usually located not near the zoning of nuts, but in megacities and is focused on the needs of the culinary industry. Flour from the kernels of walnuts, hazelnuts is produced in small quantities, but mixed with flour of grain and cereals gives unique taste to confectionery;

Millet flour - Millet flour is used in pancakes as buckwheat and according to taste and technological proportions. The production of flour from millet is the same as the production of flour from other cereals. Millet has a pronounced lipotropic effect (it prevents the deposition of fat), therefore, it is used as a folk remedy for treatment and diet, having a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, as well as the liver and hematopoietic function. Millet flour contains little gluten, so without a mixture with wheat flour, flat cakes and pancakes can fall apart;

Phosphorite flour - Phosphorite flour is a mineral phosphorus fertilizer. The production of flour consists in fine grinding of sedimentary rocks - phosphorites, apatite rocks. Mineral phosphorus fertilizer;

Black flour - so is the same name and flour for the production of black bread or Black cumin seed flour. Do not be afraid of names - even too much has been written about the benefits of black rye bread (especially with malt). Well, about cumin they say "In black caraway there is healing from all diseases, except death." Cumin flour is a unique traditional medicine;

There are flour varieties associated with national customs or standards.

French flour - Farine, French flour made from soft wheat contains about 70% starch and 10-15% protein. Extra grade, fine grinding, has maximum whiteness. It is used as a rather large additive to durum flour, to obtain a unique consistency of dough and, accordingly, baking;

Flour italian - by type, Italian flour made from soft wheat is divided into classes: 00, 0, 1, 2 and whole grain flour. The most important quality indicator specifically for Mediterranean flour (soft wheat) is the protein content.Chemically, Italian flour consists of starch (70%) and proteins (up to 15%). It is the percentage of proteins that determines the fate of Italian flour and its purpose and application: gliadin is responsible for the viscosity of the dough (provides it), and glutenin is responsible for the stickiness and elasticity;

In addition, there is Canadian flour and other types of national bases for dough and bread.

Spelled flour - The production of flour from spelled is practically no different from the production of flour from ordinary grain. Spelled is wild, non-hybrid wheat. This grain is called spelled, and it is of course a natural and healthy product. Spelled flour is characterized by a reduced gluten content. Also applicable in folk medicine and invigorates the body. Spelled flour makes excellent healthy bread, pasta, pizza and sweet pastries with a pronounced nutty taste;

Sugar flour - Production of flour from sugar - powdered sugar is focused mainly on the needs of the confectionery industry and home cooking;

Flour with bran , - The production of bran flour, most often wheat flour, has resumed at the height of fashion and interest in natural and healthy food. Flour with bran has a high content of dietary fiber (namely, they are constantly recommended by many diets for weight loss). According to the famed British Food Standards Agency, dietary fiber lowers the level of bad cholesterol in the blood;

Malt flour - The production of flour from malt is focused on the production of kvass, beer and dough improvement in the baking industry. Malt is the name given to sprouted, dried and milled grain. Now in general, sprouted grain has become a popular not only dietary supplement, but also a separate culinary dish, a side dish. To prepare red rye malt, fermentation must be performed before drying. Rye and barley grains are the classic raw materials for malt production, but millet, oats and grains of other grain crops are also used. In the food industry and cooking, two main types of malt are distinguished: white malt - enzymatically active, produced from barley and red malt, enzymatically inactive, prepared from rye;

Milk thistle flour - production of milk thistle flour is narrowly focused. Milk thistle seed flour has a medical purpose and is used as a dietary supplement in the fight against diseases such as: alcoholic and toxic liver damage, cirrhosis, hepatitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and thyroid disease, inflammation of the colon, stomach ulcer, constipation, dysbiosis, articular pain, osteochondrosis, salt deposition, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, obesity, allergies, vitiligo, psoriasis, alopecia, acne.

- (Kinva, Sorgo (Durra, Gaoliang),

KINVA (quinoa, quinoa, quinoa, movie quinoa, rice quinoa)

You are probably not familiar with this cereal, although in Israel you can buy it at any grocery store. This ancient grain, familiar to man for over 3000 years, was once a sacred plant of the Incas. The small disc-shaped grains are extremely healthy and easy to digest. Groats are perfect for almost all vegetables, meat, they are either boiled like rice and served as a side dish, or added to soups and goulash.
Kinwa is also called the "mother of croup", although she is not croup at all. It is considered a cereal because of its appearance and method of preparation. In reality, it is the fruit of a plant common in the Andes. When they are boiled, the fruits open and become, in appearance, like a swirling thin microscopic vermicelli. It is advisable to keep the quinwa in the refrigerator.
Rinse the quinoa well before cooking. If you want to cook porridge, take twice the amount of water in relation to the amount of cereals (1: 2, as with most cereals). To get a nutty flavor, you can bake it over high heat for several minutes, and then add water.

You can grind the quinoa into flour. This flour can be used to bake bread, buns and everything else that is made from ordinary flour.

Quinwa has a complete, high-quality protein that is similar in composition to that of breast milk. It also contains carbohydrates and fiber, fats and minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and zinc), vitamins (B, E).
Quinwa is very easy to digest and cooks quickly (15-20 minutes), because of this quinwa is advised for people with problems in food metabolism, babies under one year old, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. Shorter
Because of its easy digestibility, quinoa can also be cooked in summer when other cereals seem heavy. It can be added to salads and desserts. Quinwa can be eaten in the form of porridge (it is sometimes useful to cook it in the morning for breakfast), add to the broth (2-3 tablespoons after the first boil), you can germinate and add sprouts to the salad (germinate as follows: soak in water overnight, drain in the morning water, make sure the groats are wet, and leave them for a day or two).

A feature of the composition of sesame flour can be called its absolute balance. Each element, each acid, each vitamin in it is in just such an amount that it can cause only a positive effect, without an overdose or any side effects. Long-term traditions of using such a highly ecological product as sesame flour allow you to look at it without fear. If sesame flour is included in your daily diet, you are reliably protected from any possible trouble.

Types, varieties, and properties of flour from various grains and cereals

What is it for
In addition to having a huge amount useful properties of oil, from sesame seeds, you can get another, no less valuable product, namely flour. As you might guess, everything that comes out of this amazing plant has healing effects. Sesame flour is good for all internal organs - it helps the heart by normalizing myocardial contractions, strengthening and expanding blood vessels and reducing the level of cholesterol deposited on them; protects the stomach from a whole range of dangerous diseases and injuries, including quite serious ones, like ulcers; improves intestinal motility, which not only has a proper effect on the general state of health, but also significantly increases your well-being. Chronic constipation sufferers consume sesame flour, and it brings them welcome relief. For gastritis and colitis, flour helps the stomach to regulate acid balance.

During pregnancy and lactation a woman who eats foods with sesame flour has a much lower risk of suffering from various inflammations of the most important organs, such as the uterus and ovaries. Those women who earlier suffered physically and mentally during menstruation felt much better after consuming sesame flour. All this is due to the vitamins and elements contained in flour, which contribute to the normalization of hormonal levels. A man whose diet includes sesame flour in sufficient quantities does not need to be afraid of impotence - the trace elements of flour have a great effect on sexual function, and also protect against infertility.

Sesame is the world champion in calcium content... This is characteristic not only of the plant itself, but also of the products extracted from it. Flour was no exception. Calcium is vital for the normal functioning of the skeleton; it literally builds up bones and tissues. Numerous diseases of the musculoskeletal system, such as gout, arthritis, osteochondrosis and osteoporosis, will recede before a person consuming sesame flour.

Do not forget about the effect of sesame flour on other systems of the human body: it improves blood circulation, prevents blood clots, and prevents anemia from developing. The work of the excretory system, which includes, in particular, the kidneys, is normalized.

For those suffering from diabetes, sesame flour will help to develop the much-needed insulin, and for those suffering from obesity, it will help to destroy the harmful fat accumulating under the skin.

It so happens that you seem to be sick with nothing, but the state is still terrible - you don't want to think or work physically. And here sesame flour will help. The phosphorus contained in it, in combination with vitamins, will increase the tendency to mental activity, and also completely restore the lost efficiency. After severe stress or even depression, sesame flour will give you confidence due to many other substances that affect the human brain.

Method of using sesame flour:
- For prevention and as part of a comprehensive treatment of diseases, it is recommended to use sesame seed flour in 1-2 tbsp. spoons daily as part of cereals, salads, side dishes. Also sesame flour goes well with honey, jam, jam or fruit syrup.
- In home cooking, sesame flour with a pleasant nutty taste and aroma can be used as a breading for meat and vegetable cutlets and meatballs, add to homemade cakes, in dough for pancakes and pancakes, and also used as a thickener in various sauces and gravy.
- When baking bread in a ratio of 2 tablespoons of flour per 1 kg. wheat flour. A review of bread recipes showed that generally about 10 to 50 grams per 500 grams of wheat flour is added to bread dough. The specific amount of sesame flour in the dough can be determined individually, based on the health status and the tolerance of the flour by the body.

Product proportions. How many grams?
in 1 teaspoon 12 grams
in 1 tablespoon 32 grams
in 1 glass 170 grams
in 1 package 400 grams

Taking sesame seeds or its derivatives on an empty stomach can cause nausea, thirst and irritation of the mucous membranes. Also, sesame tends to increase the outflow of blood, so pregnant women need to use it in small quantities so as not to provoke a miscarriage. And the simultaneous use of aspirin, oxalic acid and various estrogen derivatives, when mixed with the calcium contained in sesame seeds, forms insoluble compounds that are part of kidney stones. Regular consumption of sesame flour is contraindicated in case of increased blood clotting, varicose veins, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis.

Sesame flour can be bought at the store, in bags of different weights

Types, varieties, and properties of flour from various grains and cereals

Or you can grind sesame flour yourself, at home

Types, varieties, and properties of flour from various grains and cereals

How to prepare sesame seeds for grinding, you can read in the topic: How to grind flour from various grains and cereals at home
Good day to you, bakers! I finally got a Moulinex OW612132 bread maker .. but in the recipe book, for some reason, all recipes need flour 00. and we don't have it in any store in our city, please tell me what kind of flour it can be replaced with ... Very I hope that someone also has the same problem as me:: hi: Thanks a lot in advance
We take ordinary flour: baking, for bread, general purpose, premium, and so on ...
We take the recipes on the forum, they are verified.
Study here The easiest white bread made from wheat flour
good day! Prompt pzhl, I bought wheat flour of English production on the occasion, the packaging says - 100% Canadian, very strong, protein - 14.9%. Is this Manitoba? 🔗
A citizen

Buy regular baking flour, well, if you really want more pomp, just add 1-2 eggs, it is much healthier and cheaper.
Thanks, but I already bought it. Money spent ... So is this manitoba or not?
A citizen
Manitoba seems to have always been made in Italy, so the answer is obvious.
The answer is not obvious. Manitoba is a province in Canada and this flour comes from Canada, which is why it got this name. Maybe someone more knowledgeable can answer me? Thank you.

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