I will add more information about flour from various types of grains, seeds
The main types of flour are distinguished mainly by the initial grinding product:
Grain flour - Amaranth, Buckwheat, Corn, Dagussa, Mogar, Oats, Millet, Paiza, Wheat, Spelled, Rye, Rice, Sorghum, Chumiza and, of course, Barley. And also the so-called "pseudo-grain" crops, which are similar in many respects to grain crops, are Kinva from the Amaranth family (other names: rice quinoa and Chilean wild buckwheat). The bulk of flour is made from wheat - the basis of bread.
Flour produced from leguminous crops - Peas, Common bean (garden bean and Russian bean), Lupine, Soybeans (soybeans), Beans,, Mung beans, Chickpeas (chickpeas) Lentils and China;
Plant flour (flour made from herbs, fruits, berries, vegetables, seeds, etc.). It is mainly used in cooking and traditional medicine as a homeopathic or dietary supplement. Most often it is processed into flour, herbs, fruits and berries, flax, sesame seeds, pine needles, wood, vegetables (potatoes, pumpkin), yeast, sugar;
Flour produced from animal products, also used as an effective complementary food for plants and livestock and as a biologically active additive - bone meal, egg shell meal, blood meal, etc .;
Mineral flour - a product of fine grinding of minerals - dolomite, salt, phosphorite, limestone, etc.
A separate industry is engaged in the production of flour - the MILLING-LARGE INDUSTRY. In general, grain production has become one of the largest and oldest sectors of the world economy. The well-known history of flour begins 10 thousand years ago, and according to some sources, even 40 thousand years and even hundreds of thousands of years. Actually, the entire history of mankind is associated with bread, and therefore with flour.
The following types of flour are most commonly used :
Wheat flour - In Russia, bakery wheat flour is produced (classified) of six grades: extra class, premium, cereal, first and second grades, wallpaper flour. It is regulated by GOST R 52189-2003 and GOST 12183-66;
Rye flour - three main varieties are produced: seeded, peeled and wallpaper. Rye flour is naturally used to bake rye bread. The production of rye flour is regulated by GOST 7045-90 and GOST 12183-66;
Rice flour - the production of flour from rice is determined by GOST 27168-86, usually from rice cereals of the "Extra" class. Rice flour does not have its own pronounced taste and smell, but it has high consumer and stable properties - a high ability to retain moisture (up to 600%);
Buckwheat flour - Buckwheat and flour are well stored, since the vegetable fats included in their composition are resistant to oxidation and destruction.The production of buckwheat flour is regulated by GOST R 53495-09 and GOST 27168-86;
Corn flour... In terms of nutritional and beneficial properties, corn flour is slightly better than wheat flour - it has a higher fatty acid content and calorie content, corn flour has excellent taste, and it also normalizes blood cholesterol levels. The production of flour from corn is regulated by GOST 14176-69. The highest quality corn flour is produced from hard corn varieties and can be coarse and finely ground;
Oat flour - Production of flour from oats is regulated by GOST 27168 and GOST 2929-75. Diverse and peculiar vitamin and amino acid composition, unique useful and medicinal properties of oats, have long been used in folk medicine and, of course, adopted in the pharmaceutical industry. The grain of oats contains up to 60% starch, up to 20% fiber and 20% of proteins, many amino acids necessary for the body: especially lysine and tryptophan (the latter deserves a separate article), oats are very rich in vitamins of groups B, E and A. Oats probably take first place among healthy food products;
Barley flour - The famous barley, pearl barley flour - Barley flour is unique - it has a high moisture and fat-binding capacity. Due to these properties, it is widely used in the production of meat and sausages. In recent years, dietetic food manufacturers have added barley flour to their products, not soy or pea flour. Barley flour is rich in b-glucan polysaccharides, which have a cholesterol-lowering effect, and is characterized by a good ratio between starches and proteins. Barley flour contains a lot of provitamin A, vitamins B and mineral elements: Ca, P, I, in comparison with flour from other cereals, especially a lot of silicic acid. The production of barley flour is regulated by GOST 5784-60;
Amaranth flour, amaranth flour is a new and well-forgotten old word in the bakery industry. Amaranth between plants has become the leader in the number of unique and irreplaceable amino acids and mineral elements, and its grains contain 60% starch, 20% high-quality protein, 8% oil and 2% vitamins, surpassing most cereals in these indicators. Amaranth's remarkable food properties have allowed the United Nations Food Commission (FOA) to call amaranth no less than a 21st century culture. Amaranth 8 thousand years was the main grain crop in South America and Mexico (even called - "Aztec wheat", "Inca bread"), competing with beans and corn. After the conquest (the Spanish conquest of America), unfortunately, this culture was forgotten, like much of the culture of these unique civilizations. In Asia, today amaranth is popular in the mountainous regions of Pakistan, India, Nepal and even China as a cereal and (surprisingly!) Vegetable crop, notable in the total amount of food. Amaranth flour is not regulated by GOSTs in Russia;
Flaxseed flour, flax seed flour. Flaxseed flour in Russia is produced in two types according to the grinding stage: fine grinding (grinding particle size up to 1 mm), and coarse grinding (particle size 2 mm). Flaxseed flour is made from thoroughly cleaned oil flax seeds (cleaning is determined in accordance with GOST 10582.). Chemically, flaxseed flour contains: from 12% to 20% - fats (of which most of 75% - omega 6 (linoleic acid), and about 15% oleic acid - Omega 9), and at least 8% linolenic acid - omega-3 ); dietary fiber is about 40% (of which 7% is fiber), 30% is protein, 38% is carbohydrates (although only 8% are digestible). Flaxseed flour in the food industry is used in the production of food concentrates, bakery products, and, of course, in homeopathy as a useful additive - for enriching foods with unsaturated fatty acids, as well as protein and dietary fiber.In addition, only one part of flaxseed flour jelly (binds) as many as six parts of water - not gelatin, of course, but a very effective culinary additive;
Fish flour (production of flour from fish is a long-standing industry of modern man) - Fish meal is a product produced by drying and grinding waste from fish processing, crustaceans, from waste obtained during processing into sea products. Fishmeal is used for the production of feed for pigs, poultry and other farm animals, for artificial fish breeding. The production of fishmeal in the world exceeds 5 million tons per year. The largest producers of fishmeal in the world are Peru, Chile, Thailand;
Bone flour, meat and bone meal (bone meat, meat), chicken meal. Flour production is located near meat processing plants and poultry factories. Bone meal is mainly used as a phosphorus fertilizer (contains 30-35% P2O5) for tub crops (these are citrus fruits - tangerines and lemons, laurel cherries) and other plants, including open ground. It is considered a slow acting but necessary fertilizer. Also, bone meal is used as a dietary supplement in alternative and official medicine;
Soy flour - Soy flour is a rather valuable food product produced from soy seeds (as well as from soybean meal). Soy flour is valuable because it increases the biological and nutritional value of almost any product, enriching the mixture with proteins, vegetable fats and lecithin, in addition, it contains as yet little-studied substances - islectanes. This has led to almost ubiquitous soy supplementation where and when needed - it's cheaper! Unfortunately, now almost all soybeans are genetically modified. Natural soybeans, including due to cross-pollination with mutant ones, can no longer be found. The discussion of the harm and benefits of soybeans, and genetically modified products in general, is beyond the scope of this article. Soy flour production is focused on the meat (sausage) and bakery industries, as well as, which is unlikely to please healthy food lovers, in the manufacture of "quick" or "one-time" dry breakfast cereals, adding directly to the base of the dough;
Dolomite flour (or lime flour). Limestone flour production (natural dolomite grinding) - gives a mineral product - dolomite flour. Dolomite flour is the main and very valuable lime fertilizer for vegetables (carrots, beets, potatoes), agricultural plants (clover, alfalfa, onions, flax), and other crops;
Herbal flour, vitamin flour , vitamin-herbal flour - is most often used as a vitamin-protein feed obtained from dried herbs. Therefore, the production of flour from herbs is also organized as a subsidiary farm in livestock collective farms and farms. The raw material for the production of grass meal is sown and wild perennial and annual meadow grasses. Herbal flour is useful due to the high content of carotenoids (α.β, γ, δ) - special fat- and water-soluble vitamins. (Everything is regulated by OST 10 242-2000). Herbal flour in its various forms is a valuable raw material for pharmacology, homeopathy and, of course, traditional medicine.
Pea flour - a product of the production of flour from peas is used in the production of sausages and sausages, and in bread production, where pea or soy flour serves as the main protein fortifier;
Wood flour - as the name implies - Wood flour, a free-flowing product obtained by mechanical (dry) grinding of wood chips. Interestingly, wood flour is a component of many explosives and building materials; and is also used in the production of titanium dioxide. Wood flour is also used as a polishing material. The production of wood flour takes place in special equipment - in impact mills and in pendulum roller mills. Flour is taken out through sieves and in air separators;
Pine flour - the production of flour from pine needles has been mastered for a long time.The raw material for coniferous or grass flour is usually a coniferous leg (up to 20 cm) or a branch. Needles are an excellent source of carotene (contains up to 300 mg / kg), and during the year its content in needles practically does not change. Pine flour is rich in vitamin C - its content is up to 300 mg / kg). In contrast to corotins, the level of vitamin C in needles increases in winter to 600 mg / kg, and in summer it decreases markedly to 250 mg / kg (content in dry matter). You need to store needles in the cold: Storing spruce needles at 8 degrees C per month leads to a loss of up to 35% of carotene, and when stored at temperatures below 5 degrees C, no drop in vitamin C is observed. Therefore, the needles for traditional medicine are stored in light frost. Fresh needles of ordinary spruces and pines contain up to 350 mg / kg of vitamin E. In addition, pine flour is rich in other substances: 1 kg. dry needles (both spruce and pine) contain vitamins in mg: R - up to 3800, K - up to 20, PP - 142, B1 - 20, B2 - 10, B3 - 30, B6 - 2, H - 0.15; trace elements - cobalt, manganese, iron, magnesium and others. ; there are many amino acids, including essential ones. Even the simplest technology for the production of coniferous flour retains most of the nutrients (vitamins and trace elements); Pine flour is one of the folk remedies for the treatment of vitamin deficiency, and baths with it are an excellent remedy for dermatoses, nervous exhaustion and depression. It goes well with seaweed flour, other iodine-rich foods and sea salt to enhance each other's actions.
Almond flour - production of flour by grinding almonds, used for the manufacture of nut fillings and sandy-nut semi-finished products in confectionery and home cooking. Almond flour is appreciated as an additive and is suitable for all types of dough, and as a completely independent dish. With her, for example, they prepare almond cream - a very tasty filling for baking buns and tartlets. Almond flour is also used in cooking to create a thicker consistency in a number of sauces and soups, traditional for Mediterranean cuisine;
Bird cherry flour - The production of flour from dried fruits of bird cherry is intended primarily for the needs of cooking and medicine. The collection of cherry fruits is carried out in many regions of Russia. This is both spice and medicine, especially in the treatment of a number of eye and gastrointestinal diseases. For a long time, bird cherry flour has been a folk remedy;
Chickpea flour - the production of chickpea flour is focused on culinary, home cooking. And even traditional medicine. Chickpea flour is the basis for the production of Indian sweets, thick soups, pancakes and other original dishes .. Chickpea flour, used for washing, cleanses the skin well, removes blackheads;
Potato flour - flour potatoes - dried potatoes, ground into flour. Unfortunately, the production of flour from potatoes is still underdeveloped, but this is a very promising direction of the food industry. Potato flour can be combined (the professional term is blended) with other types of flour in the manufacture of unique culinary products based on dough. So, when mixing potato flour 1: 1 or even 1: 3 with wheat (or rye) flour, a factory is obtained for making a special dough for Taron noodles used in Armenian cuisine. Pancakes made from potato flour, drinks with the addition of it - all this is only part of the culinary potential of this product. Potato flour is also used in the preparation of a number of food concentrates, and in agriculture for fattening pigs and livestock. It is sometimes incorrectly called starch - it is another substance;
Feed flour - flour compound feed - production of flour for compound feed is regulated by GOST 13496.12-98 Combined feed, compound feed raw materials.
Pumpkin flour - ground pumpkin cake, obtained by pressing oil from pumpkin seeds. The production of pumpkin flour is combined with the production of butter.Pumpkin seed flour is rich in vitamins of groups C, B, as well as trace elements - potassium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc and others, as well as dietary fiber. Pumpkin meal contains the amino acids isoleucine, methionine and cysteine, leucine, glutamine, glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, valine and others;
Yeast flour - the production of flour from yeast is focused on the production of biologically active additives that increase immunity and the needs of the microbiological and medical industries;
Tempura flour, Tempura flour production is intended for the national cuisine of many Asian countries. Tempura flour consists of a mixture of wheat, rice flour and potato starch with salt. Tempura flour is a Japanese (Chinese cuisine) bread flour for making a kind of batter and many oriental dishes. It is used to cook hot (tempura) vegetables and seafood, which are dipped in tempura batter - and deep fried - in a deep skillet with boiling oil. The batter should be non-uniform so that air bubbles remain, making it thin, juicy and crispy when fried (tempura);
Cedar flour - Production of flour from pine nuts consists in squeezing the kernel of the pine nuts. This is a unique but expensive product. By its nutritional qualities and composition, cedar flour is close to soybeans and nuts, in some respects it is noticeably superior to them. But the fact that cedar flour does not contain genetically modified products is a fact. We haven't had time yet. Absolutely all the vitamins and minerals found in the recognized homeopathic remedy - pine nuts remain in the cedar flour, and up to 30% of the cedar nut oil remains. Together with milk thistle oil, the effect of cedar flour is enhanced. Mainly produced in Altai and the Far East;
Nut flour - the production of flour from nuts is usually located not near the zoning of nuts, but in megacities and is focused on the needs of the culinary industry. Flour from the kernels of walnuts, hazelnuts is produced in small quantities, but mixed with flour of grain and cereals gives unique taste to confectionery;
Millet flour - Millet flour is used in pancakes as buckwheat and according to taste and technological proportions. The production of flour from millet is the same as the production of flour from other cereals. Millet has a pronounced lipotropic effect (it prevents the deposition of fat), therefore, it is used as a folk remedy for treatment and diet, having a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, as well as the liver and hematopoietic function. Millet flour contains little gluten, so without a mixture with wheat flour, flat cakes and pancakes can fall apart;
Phosphorite flour - Phosphorite flour is a mineral phosphorus fertilizer. The production of flour consists in fine grinding of sedimentary rocks - phosphorites, apatite rocks. Mineral phosphorus fertilizer;
Black flour - so is the same name and flour for the production of black bread or Black cumin seed flour. Do not be afraid of names - even too much has been written about the benefits of black rye bread (especially with malt). Well, about cumin they say "In black caraway there is healing from all diseases, except death." Cumin flour is a unique traditional medicine;
There are flour varieties associated with national customs or standards.
French flour - Farine, French flour made from soft wheat contains about 70% starch and 10-15% protein. Extra grade, fine grinding, has maximum whiteness. It is used as a rather large additive to durum flour, to obtain a unique consistency of dough and, accordingly, baking;
Flour italian - by type, Italian flour made from soft wheat is divided into classes: 00, 0, 1, 2 and whole grain flour. The most important quality indicator specifically for Mediterranean flour (soft wheat) is the protein content.Chemically, Italian flour consists of starch (70%) and proteins (up to 15%). It is the percentage of proteins that determines the fate of Italian flour and its purpose and application: gliadin is responsible for the viscosity of the dough (provides it), and glutenin is responsible for the stickiness and elasticity;